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Adalat (Nifedipine)
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Adalat

Adalat is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of hypertension or high blood pressure, angina or chest pain. Adalat acts by relaxing blood vessels (such as veins and arteries), which makes it easier for the heart to pump and reduces its workload.

Other names for this medication:
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Also known as:  Nifedipine.

Description

Adalat is a perfect remedy in struggle against hypertension or high blood pressure, angina or chest pain.

Adalat acts by relaxing blood vessels (such as veins and arteries), which makes it easier for the heart to pump and reduces its workload.

Adalat is also known as Nifedipine, Nicardia, Nifedical, Procardia.

Generic name of Adalat is Nifedipine.

Brand names of Adalat are Adalat CC, Procardia, Procardia XL.

Dosage

Adalat should be taken orally with or without food.

It is better to take Adalat at the same time every day. Take on an empty stomach.

Avoid grapefruit juice during treatment with Adalat.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Adalat suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Adalat and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Adalat are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Adalat if you are allergic to Adalat components.

Do not take Adalat if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Adalat can harm your baby.

Do not use Adalat in combination with salt substitutes or potassium supplements.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Avoid grapefruit juice during treatment with Adalat.

Try to be careful using Adalat if you suffer from kidney disease, liver disease, diseases of the heart or blood vessels (sick sinus syndrome), aortic stenosis, heart failure, low blood pressure, or coronary artery disease.

Do not stop taking Adalat suddenly.

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Some specific features of the 24 h blood pressure (BP) pattern are linked to the progressive injury of target tissues and the triggering of cardiac and cerebrovascular events. In particular, many studies show the extent of the nocturnal BP decline relative to the diurnal BP mean (the diurnal/nocturnal ratio, an index of BP dipping) is deterministic of cardiovascular injury and risk. Normalization of the circadian BP pattern is considered to be an important clinical goal of pharmacotherapy because it may slow the advance of renal injury and avert end-stage renal failure. The chronotherapy of hypertension takes into account the epidemiology of the BP pattern, plus potential administration-time determinants of the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of antihypertensive medications, as a means of enhancing beneficial outcomes and/or attenuating or averting adverse effects. Thus, bedtime dosing with nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) is more effective than morning dosing, while also reducing significantly secondary effects. The dose-response curve, therapeutic coverage, and efficacy of doxazosin GITS are all markedly dependent on the circadian time of drug administration. Moreover, valsartan administration at bedtime as opposed to upon wakening results in improved diurnal/nocturnal ratio, a significant increase in the percentage of patients with controlled BP after treatment, and significant reductions in urinary albumin excretion and plasma fibrinogen. Chronotherapy provides a means of individualizing treatment of hypertension according to the circadian BP profile of each patient, and constitutes a new option to optimize BP control and reduce risk.

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Estrogens induce vasodilatation and/or hypotension in several experimental models, probably by a blockade of calcium currents. However, very little is known about the potential cardiovascular effects of androgens. We have previously shown that 5 beta-reduced androgens are more potent vasorelaxants than their precursors (delta 4-3 keto), 5-reduced progestins and 17beta-estradiol. The present study set out to investigate if this vasorelaxant effect of 5-reduced androgens is operative in vivo in the analysis of the potential vasodepressor effect of these compounds in vagosympathectomized, pithed rats. After increasing diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by a continuous infusion of norepinephrine (0.059 micromol x kg(-1)min(-1)), i.v. bolus injections of 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-androstan-17-one (etiocholanolone), 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone (5 beta-DHT), and its isomer 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT) (5-25 micromol x kg(-1) each) produced, separately, dose-dependent vasodepressor responses. These responses were biphasic: an immediate fall in DBP (reaching the nadir within 1.7 min) was followed by a further slow decrease that reached a maximum between 80 and 100 min after steroid administration. The order of potency of androgens in decreasing DBP was: 5 beta-DHT>5 alpha-DHT=etiocholanolone for the short-lasting response and 5 alpha-DHT>5 beta-DHT>or=etiocholanolone for the longer lasting response. Importantly, the same doses of these compounds produced no significant changes in heart rate. Moreover, 5 beta-DHT significantly antagonized the vasopressor responses to methyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3-nitro-4-(2-trifluromethylphenyl)-pyridine-5-carboxylate (Bay K 8644) with a blocking profile similar to that of nifedipine (NIF). This finding suggests that a blockade of voltage-operated calcium channels may be involved in androgen-induced hypotension.

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We investigated the mechanisms of action of 3-O-methylquercetin (3-MQ), isolated from Rhamnus nakaharai (Hayata) Hayata (Rhamnaceae) which is used as a folk medicine for treating constipation, inflammation, tumors and asthma in Taiwan. The tension changes of tracheal segments were isometrically recorded on a polygraph. 3-MQ concentration-dependently relaxed histamine (30 microM)-, carbachol (0.2 microM)- and KCl (30 mM)-induced precontractions, and inhibited cumulative histamine-, and carbachol-induced contractions in a non-competitive manner. 3-MQ also concentration-dependently and non-competitively inhibited cumulative Ca(2+)-induced contractions in depolarized (K(+), 60 mM) guinea-pig trachealis. The nifedipine (10 microM)-remaining tension of histamine (30 microM)-induced precontraction was further relaxed by 3-MQ, suggesting that no matter whether VDCCs were blocked or not, 3-MQ may have other mechanisms of relaxant action. The relaxant effect of 3-MQ was unaffected by the removal of epithelium or by the presence of propranolol (1 microM), 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (10 microM), methylene blue (25 microM), glibenclamide (10 microM), N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (20 microM), or alpha-chymotrypsin (1 U/ml). However, 3-MQ (7.5 - 15 microM) and IBMX (3 - 6 microM), a positive control, produced parallel and leftward shifts of the concentration-response curve of forskoline (0.01 - 3 microM) or nitroprusside (0.01 - 30 microM). 3-MQ or IBMX at various concentrations (10 - 300 microM) concentration-dependently and significantly inhibited cAMP- and cGMP-PDE activities of the trachealis. The IC50 values of 3-MQ were estimated to be 13.8 and 14.3 microM, respectively. The inhibitory effects of 3-MQ on both enzyme activities were not significantly different from those of IBMX, a non-selective PDE inhibitor. The above results reveal that the mechanisms of relaxant action of 3-MQ may be due to its inhibitory effects on both PDE activities and its subsequent reducing effect on [Ca(2+)]i of the trachealis.3-MQ:3-O-methylquercetinIBMX:3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthineVDCCs:voltage dependent calcium channelscAMP:adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphatecGMP:guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphatePDE:phosphodiesteraseWe investigated the mechanisms of action of 3-O-methylquercetin (3-MQ), isolated from Rhamnus nakaharai (Hayata) Hayata (Rhamnaceae) which is used as a folk medicine for treating constipation, inflammation, tumors and asthma in Taiwan. The tension changes of tracheal segments were isometrically recorded on a polygraph. 3-MQ concentration-dependently relaxed histamine (30 microM)-, carbachol (0.2 microM)- and KCl (30 mM)-induced precontractions, and inhibited cumulative histamine-, and carbachol-induced contractions in a non-competitive manner. 3-MQ also concentration-dependently and non-competitively inhibited cumulative Ca(2+)-induced contractions in depolarized (K(+), 60 mM) guinea-pig trachealis. The nifedipine (10 microM)-remaining tension of histamine (30 microM)-induced precontraction was further relaxed by 3-MQ, suggesting that no matter whether VDCCs were blocked or not, 3-MQ may have other mechanisms of relaxant action. The relaxant effect of 3-MQ was unaffected by the removal of epithelium or by the presence of propranolol (1 microM), 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (10 microM), methylene blue (25 microM), glibenclamide (10 microM), N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (20 microM), or alpha-chymotrypsin (1 U/ml). However, 3-MQ (7.5 - 15 microM) and IBMX (3 - 6 microM), a positive control, produced parallel and leftward shifts of the concentration-response curve of forskoline (0.01 - 3 microM) or nitroprusside (0.01 - 30 microM). 3-MQ or IBMX at various concentrations (10 - 300 microM) concentration-dependently and significantly inhibited cAMP- and cGMP-PDE activities of the trachealis. The IC50 values of 3-MQ were estimated to be 13.8 and 14.3 microM, respectively. The inhibitory effects of 3-MQ on both enzyme activities were not significantly different from those of IBMX, a non-selective PDE inhibitor. The above results reveal that the mechanisms of relaxant action of 3-MQ may be due to its inhibitory effects on both PDE activities and its subsequent reducing effect on [Ca(2+)]i of the trachealis.3-MQ:3-O-methylquercetinIBMX:3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthineVDCCs:voltage dependent calcium channelscAMP:adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphatecGMP:guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphatePDE:phosphodiesterase

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To evaluate the safety and outcome of women undergoing expectant management of early onset, severe pre-eclampsia.

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Calcium-channel blockers for RP in SSc have been tested in several small clinical trials and appear to lead to significant clinical improvement in both the frequency and the severity of ischemic attacks. Most trials were crossover trials in which order effect was not studied. This could have introduced bias. The results of this study suggest that the efficacy of calcium-channel blockers in reducing the severity and frequency of ischemic attacks in RP secondary to SSc is moderate at best (mean reduction of 8.3 attacks in 2 weeks and 35% less severity), and a further large, randomized controlled trial needs to be conducted.

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The efflux of gamma-aminoisobutyric acid (GABA) and L-glutamate from pre-loaded cells in rat cerebral cortical slices has been studied during interventions designed to affect the availability of intracellular Ca2+ during hyposmotic swelling and membrane depolarization due to raised extracellular K+. Calmodulin-dependent acceleration of amino acid efflux in hyposmotic media, with cell swelling less than would be predicted on the basis of perfect osmometric behaviour (see Ref. [1]), was unaffected by Ca-ionophore in the presence of external Ca2+ or by the omission of external Ca2+, but was suppressed by pre-exposure of slices to thapsigargin (2 microM), which is reported to deplete cytosolic Ca2+, and by TMB-8 (0.5 mM), which blocks release of Ca2+ from internal stores. TMB-8 also led to significant cell swelling. The effects of TMB-8 were reversed by Ca-ionophore. Raised external K+ (54 mM) led to accelerated amino acid efflux which required calmodulin activation and was blocked by (i) omission of external Ca2+, (ii) the voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine (1 microM), (iii) the anion transport inhibitor DIDS (25 microM for GABA, 100 microM for L-glutamate, see Ref. [1]), and (iv) the -SH group acetylator N-ethylmaleimide. TMB-8 was without effect in high K+ media. These results suggest that while enhanced amino acids efflux probably occurs through the same population of Ca/calmodulin-dependent, DIDS-sensitive pathways following hyposmotic shock or membrane depolarization, the source of Ca2+ ions required for the activation of these pathways may depend upon which of these acceleratory stimuli is applied.

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To assess the in-vivo action on the renal microvasculature of the calcium antagonists nifedipine (L-type blocker), efonidipine (L/T-type blocker), and mibefradil (predominant T-type blocker).

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We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2013), bibliographies of retrieved papers, and personal files.

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Nicorandil is as effective as nifedipine for tocolysis in preterm labour, but is more likely to cause maternal and fetal tachycardia which may be of concern. Larger studies are needed to assess the safety of nicorandil as a novel oral tocolytic agent.

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To investigate the prevalence and risk indicator of nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth in a community population in Beijing.

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We examined whether Ca2+ channel blockers inhibit the activation of the Ca2+-dependent phosphatase calcineurin and the development of cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We randomly divided 12-week-old SHR into three groups, one each receiving vehicle, bolus injection or continuous infusion of nifedipine (10 mg/kg/day) from 12 to 24 weeks of age. Systolic blood pressure (BP) and heart rate were measured every week after the treatment using the tail-cuff plethysmography method. After 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment, 6 rats of each group were subjected to examinations that included an assay for calcineurin activity in the heart, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histology and Northern blot analysis. Continuous infusion of nifedipine consistently reduced BP, whereas bolus injection resulted in a fluctuation of BP. Continuous infusion of nifedipine not only reduced left ventricular mass but also decreased the transverse diameter of cardiomyocytes, interstitial fibrosis and the expression of the atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide genes in the heart, while bolus injection of nifedipine did not significantly attenuate any of these hypertrophic responses in SHR. The activity of calcineurin in the heart was strongly suppressed by continuous but not bolus infusion of nifedipine in SHR. The results indicate that continuous blockade of Ca2+ channels with nifedipine effectively suppresses the development of cardiac hypertrophy in SHR, possibly through inhibition of the calcineurin activity.

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Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced Ca(2+) signaling was studied in isolated rat renal arterioles using fura-2. Ang II (10 nmol/L) caused a sustained elevation in [Ca(2+)](i), which was dependent on [Ca(2+)](o) in both vessel types. This response was blocked by nifedipine in only the afferent arteriole. Using the Mn(2+) quench technique, we found that Ang II stimulates Ca(2+) influx in both vessels. Nifedipine blocked the Ang II-induced Ca(2+) influx in afferent arterioles but not in efferent arterioles. In contrast to Ang II, KCl-induced depolarization stimulated Ca(2+) influx in only the afferent arteriole. Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA, 30 micromol/L) was used to examine the presence of store-operated Ca(2+) entry in myocytes isolated from each arteriole. In efferent myocytes, CPA induced a sustained Ca(2+) increase that was dependent on [Ca(2+)](o) and insensitive to nifedipine. This mechanism was absent in afferent myocytes. SKF 96365 inhibited Ang II-induced Ca(2+) entry in efferent arterioles and CPA-induced Ca(2+) entry in efferent myocytes over identical concentrations. Our findings thus indicate that Ang II activates differing Ca(2+) influx mechanisms in pre- and postglomerular arterioles. In the afferent arteriole, Ang II activates dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type Ca(2+) channels, presumably by membrane depolarization. In the efferent arteriole, Ang II appears to stimulate Ca(2+) entry via store-operated Ca(2+) influx.

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adalat tab 2015-07-13

This study was undertaken to assess the role of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) Ca2+ Rulide Medication Ingredients channels and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in gene regulation after oxidative endothelial injury (OEI).

adalat 90 mg 2015-10-20

Recent reports show that nifedipine not only causes vasodilation but also exerts beneficial effects on the endothelium of blood vessels. Some clinical trials evaluated nifedipine GITS (gastrointestinal therapeutic system) in patients with coronary artery disease. The investigators found that the treatment with nifedipine improved acetylcholine reactivity in coronary arteries Cefixime Gonorrhea Dosage and inhibited increases in coronary plaque volume. Furthermore, the large randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled ACTION (A Coronary Disease Trial Investigating Outcome with Nifedipine GITS) study in patients with stable angina pectoris revealed that the treatment with nifedipine GITS led to significant reductions in the onset of overt heart failure and in the need for coronary angiography or coronary artery bypass graft surgery. These data indicate that a direct action on blood vessels, rather than coronary vasodilating or antihypertensive effects, might be responsible for improved prognosis with nifedipine.

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Open-label, Cardura Pill prospective, switch study

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Twenty children (seven girls Alesse User Reviews including two sisters) with achalasia were studied, seven of them had a morbid association. Age at diagnosis ranged from eight months to 18 years (med: 6.4 yrs). Duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis ranged from one to 62 months (med: 8 months). Regurgitations, weight loss and recurrent pneumonias were the most common presenting symptoms. Diagnosis was established using esophageal manometry, which showed aperistalsis throughout the esophageal body with impaired relaxation of lower esophageal sphincter in all children, and chest x-ray and barium esophagram, which were abnormal in 11 and 18 children respectively.

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To study the efficacy of nifedipine compared with Tegretol Tablet terbutaline as a tocolytic agent in external cephalic version (ECV).

adalat dosage 2016-03-06

Isoprostanes accumulate after coronary artery bypass graft surgery, yet none of the currently available antispasm treatments for radial artery grafts is effective against isoprostane-induced vasoconstriction. It is imperative that more specific treatment strategies be developed. We found Augmentin Elixir Dosage that isoprostane responses in radial arteries are mediated by prostanoid receptors selective for thromboxane A2 with activation of Rho-kinase and release of Ca2+. Pretreatment of radial artery grafts with Rho-associated kinase inhibitors may potentially reduce postoperative graft spasm. Clinical studies to test this are indicated.

adalat 30 mg 2016-11-21

The ionic basis underlying the maintenance of myogenic tone of lower esophageal sphincter circular muscle (LES) was investigated in opossum with the use of standard isometric tension and conventional intracellular microelectrode recordings in vitro. In tension recording studies, nifedipine (1 microM) reduced basal tone to 27.7 +/- 3.8% of control. The K(+) channel blockers tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM), charybdotoxin (100 nM), and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 2 mM) enhanced resting tone, whereas apamin and glibenclamide were without affect. Cl(-) channel blockers DIDS (500 microM) and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (500 microM), as well as niflumic acid (0.1-300 microM), decreased basal tone, but tamoxifen was without effect. Intracellular microelectrode recordings revealed ongoing, spontaneous, spike-like action potentials (APs). Nifedipine abolished APs and depolarized resting membrane potential (RMP). Both TEA and 4-AP significantly depolarized RMP and augmented APs, whereas niflumic acid dose-dependently hyperpolarized RMP and abolished APs. These data suggest that, in the opossum, basal tone is associated with continuous APs and that K(+) and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels have important opposing roles in the genesis Ziac Generic Bisoprolol of LES tone.

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There is concern regarding the interaction of magnesium sulfate and nifedipine used concomitantly in obstetrical patients, because both are calcium channel antagonists and may induce myocardial depression as well as peripheral vasodilatation. The objective of this study was to determine the hemodynamic consequences of concomitant administration of nifedipine and magnesium sulfate in anesthetized pigs. Twelve pigs were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, intubated mechanically ventilated. Following placement of invasive monitors, baseline hemodynamic measurements were made. Animals were randomized to one of two groups. Group I received nifedipine first, and then magnesium sulfate. Group II received magnesium sulfate first, and then nifedipine. Hemodynamic measurements were recorded. Hypotension was treated with calcium chloride, ephedrine and phenylephrine. Nifedipine alone (Group I) decreased peripheral vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (P<0.05). Magnesium sulfate alone in group II decreased the first derivative of left ventricular pressure (LVdP/dt) and increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) (P<0.05). Magnesium sulfate also decreased peripheral vascular resistance and MAP The concomitant administration of nifedipine and magnesium sulfate in both groups I and 11 led to a further decrease in myocardial contractility, as evidenced by a decrease in LVdP/dt and increase in LVEDP (P<0.05). Treatment with calcium chloride or ephedrine was only partially successful in improving myocardial contractility. Phenylephrine increased peripheral vascular resistance and Accutane Medication MAP, but did not improve myocardial function. In conclusion, the depressive effects of nifedipine and magnesium sulfate on the cardiovascular system are potentiated when administered concomitantly.