Two simple, sensitive and economical spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of nifedipine in pharmaceutical formulations. Method A is based on the reaction of the nitro group of the drug with potassium hydroxide in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) medium to form a coloured product, which absorbs maximally at 430 nm. Method B uses oxidation of the drug with ammonium molybdate and subsequently reduced molybdenum blue is measured at 830 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 5.0-50.0 and 2.5-45.0 microg ml(-1) with methods A and B, respectively. Both methods have been successfully applied for the assay of the drug in pharmaceutical formulations. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical adjuvants. The reliability and the performance of the proposed methods are established by point and interval hypothesis tests and through recovery studies.
We investigated the effects of oral administration of enteric coated aspirin (ASA) on blood pressure and blood pressure variability of hypertension patients before sleep.
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We evaluated insulin sensitivity in two groups of essential hypertensive subjects before and after treatment with either long-acting nifedipine (nifedipine-CR, Adalat CR tablets; Bayer Yakuhin, Osaka, Japan) (n = 10) or metoprolol (n = 9). Insulin sensitivity was evaluated from the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) level measured at the steady-state insulin level (20 to 30 microU/mL) using a modification of the SSPG method previously reported.
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Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive X-linked genetic disease, caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin. DMD is characterized in humans and in mdx mice by a severe and progressive destruction of muscle fibers, inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and cell death. In mdx muscle fibers, we have shown that basal ATP release is increased and that extracellular ATP stimulation is pro-apoptotic. In normal fibers, depolarization-induced ATP release is blocked by nifedipine, leading us to study the potential therapeutic effect of nifedipine in mdx muscles and its relation with extracellular ATP signaling. Acute exposure to nifedipine (10 µM) decreased [Ca(2+)]r, NF-κB activity and iNOS expression in mdx myotubes. In addition, 6-week-old mdx mice were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of nifedipine, 1 mg/Kg for 1 week. This treatment lowered the [Ca(2+)]r measured in vivo in the mdx vastus lateralis. We demonstrated that extracellular ATP levels were higher in adult mdx flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) fibers and can be significantly reduced after 1 week of treatment with nifedipine. Interestingly, acute treatment of mdx FDB fibers with apyrase, an enzyme that completely degrades extracellular ATP to AMP, reduced [Ca(2+)]r to a similar extent as was seen in FDB fibers after 1-week of nifedipine treatment. Moreover, we demonstrated that nifedipine treatment reduced mRNA levels of pro-oxidative/nitrosative (iNOS and gp91(phox)/p47(phox) NOX2 subunits) and pro-apoptotic (Bax) genes in mdx diaphragm muscles and lowered serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. In addition, nifedipine treatment increased muscle strength assessed by the inverted grip-hanging test and exercise tolerance measured with forced swimming test in mdx mice. We hypothesize that nifedipine reduces basal ATP release, thereby decreasing purinergic receptor activation, which in turn reduces [Ca(2+)]r in mdx skeletal muscle cells. The results in this work open new perspectives towards possible targets for pharmacological approaches to treat DMD.
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Free oxygen radicals and insufficiency of antioxidants have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We determined the effect of edible oils on blood pressure, lipid profiles and redox status in hypertensive patients given antihypertensive therapy (nifedipine-calcium channel blocker).
A unique transient outward K(+) current (I(to)) has been described to result from the removal of extracellular Ca(2+) from ventricular myocytes of the guinea pig (15). This study addressed the question of whether this current represented K(+)-selective I(to) or the efflux of K(+) via L-type Ca(2+) channels. This outward current was inhibited by Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), and La(3+) as well as by nifedipine. All of these compounds were equally effective inhibitors of the L-type Ca(2+) current. The current was not inhibited by 4-aminopyridine. Apparent inhibition of the outward current by extracellular Ca(2+) was shown to result from the displacement of the reversal potential of cation flux through L-type Ca(2+) channels. The current was found not to be K(+) selective but also permeant to Cs(+). The voltage dependence of inactivation of the outward current was identical to that of the L-type Ca(2+) current. It is concluded that extracellular Ca(2+) does not mask an A-type K(+) current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes.
Evidence exists that calcium antagonists can have effects on neural function. The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of two dihydropyridines, nifedipine and nimodipine, administered for 11 days on the behavior and pain sensitivity of rats. Nociception was tested using the tail electric stimulation test, and behavior parameters using a holeboard. Our results show that chronic administration of nifedipine or nimodipine induces analgesia that can be evaluated by tail withdrawal. However, neither the vocalization nor the vocalization after discharge were modified, so the analgesia may be mediated by spinal mechanisms. Rats treated with nifedipine or nimodipine exhibited a dose-dependent tendency to avoid the center of the field without modification of other parameters, suggesting an increased emotivity in the rats. This conclusion is supported by the fact that anxiogenic or anxiolytic drugs modify the pattern of locomotion without significant changes in other parameters related with the motility. The results from this study suggest the view of a complex mechanism of action underlying nifedipine- and nimodipine-mediated behavioral effects.
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Gingival enlargement is common among patients and can be caused by a variety of etiological factors. The most common reason is poor oral hygiene and high bacterial load that leads to gingival inflammation and enlargement. Other implicated factors include systemic drugs, such as Phenytoin (Dilantin) taken by epileptic patients, Calcium Channel Blockers such as Nifedipine (Procardia) and Verapamil (Calan) for the treatment of hypertension, arrhythmia and angina. Another class of medication associated with gingival enlargement is immunosuppressive agents given to organ-transplant patients to prevent rejection of the new element, such as Cyclosporine. Some enlargements could be associated with other conditions such as puberty, pregnancy or diabetes or be a symptom of a systemic disease (leukemia, Wegener's granulomatosis or sarcoidosis). In rare cases the cause for the enlargement is genetic and termed Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis (HGF). HGF is a genetic disorder characterized by a progressive enlargement of the gingiva. Histologically, the gingiva is characterized by an accumulation of dense fibrous connective tissue. This is believed to be due to an imbalance between synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix composed mainly of collagen molecules or due to an alteration in fibroblast proliferation. Different pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed and examined over the years but no precise process has been identified. The main objective of this paper is to discuss this genetic anomaly and support it with clinical cases of a mother and her two children. It will focus on the clinical and histologic characteristics of HGF as well as known biologic and genetic features and treatment modalities.
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Based on the current available evidence, maintenance treatment with a calcium channel blocker after threatened preterm labour does not prevent preterm birth or improve maternal or infant outcomes.