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Based on the results from these 2 large, randomized trials, ASA + dipyridamole was more effective than ASA monotherapy as first-line therapy for secondary stroke prevention in these patients with a history of minor stroke or TIA of noncardioembolic etiology.
The fixed-dose combination of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) 25 mg plus extended-release dipyridamole 200 mg (ASA+ER-DP) is used for long-term secondary stroke prevention in patients who have experienced non-cardioembolic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Although the theoretical risk is low that the antiplatelet activity of ASA+ER-DP will be affected by concomitant use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), no formal drug-drug interaction studies have been conducted.
To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the prevalence and trends of preventive medicines use in older people in New Zealand. This study may facilitate further research to examine the appropriateness of prescribing these medicines in older people with multimorbidity.
In primary prevention trials conducted in low-risk subjects, aspirin is associated with a small reduction in ischemic strokes in women. It also reduces the incidence of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), but warfarin is more effective in patients with high blood pressure, or left ventricular dysfunction, especially those aged >75 years. According to secondary prevention trials in patients after noncardioembolic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attacks, aspirin at any dose between 50 and 1,300 mg per day reduces the risk of new events, but doses >150 mg per day are associated with a worse gastrointestinal tolerance. Clopidogrel and a combination of aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole are both slightly more effective than aspirin, but the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel does not reduce the risk of new vascular events and increases life-threatening bleedings. Aspirin cannot be recommended for secondary prevention in NVAF, except in the case of absolute contraindications to warfarin. The available data show that at the acute stage of ischemic stroke, aspirin is safe and slightly more effective than placebo or heparin, even in NVAF, but other antiplatelet agents have not been evaluated.
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Because the vast majority of patients with ischemic stroke have recurrent stroke or transient ischemic attack, rather than myocardial infarction, as their next event, antiplatelet therapies for these patients should be administered according to what has been shown to be efficacious for secondary stroke protection rather than for myocardial protection. Combination therapies, which provide optimal platelet inhibition as well as vascular protection, may offer the best strategy for secondary stroke protection.
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Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for eye disease that can lead to blindness. There have been both concerns that aspirin use might worsen diabetic retinopathy, as well as hopes that aspirin might be beneficial in treating it. We investigated whether there are beneficial effects of aspirin alone and in combination with other antiplatelet agents in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy, and the relative hazards for the development of high-risk proliferative retinopathy following aspirin treatment. We conducted a sensitive search for randomized controlled trials combined with index terms for identifying studies on aspirin treatment in diabetic retinopathy in the Cochrane Library (issue 4, 2001) and Medline (1966 to October, 2001). We examined randomized controlled clinical trials in diabetic patients with (non) proliferative diabetic retinopathy and aspirin treatment alone or in combination with dipyramidole versus placebo administration. Two independent reviewers judged trial eligibility, collected details of study population, interventions, and outcomes using a standard data extraction form. One reviewer assessed the quality of trial reporting. We identified six publications pertinent to our objective. Aspirin dosages ranged from 650 mg to 990 mg daily, the dose of dipyridamole, used in only one trial, was 225 mg per day. Studies lasted 8 weeks to 5 years. All trials showed that aspirin alone or in combination with dipyridamole neither lowered nor increased the risk of the development of diabetic retinopathy. The results suggest that there are no ocular contraindications to taking aspirin if required as part of a treatment for cardiovascular diseases or other medical indications.
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To determine the antiplatelet effect of cilostazol (Pletal) and its interaction with dipyridamole in in vitro and in vivo rabbit models, and to see if it can be dissociated from bleeding time prolongation.
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Blood was taken for platelet function tests, PGI2 metabolite assay, and red cell deformability before and 2 h after the trial dose was taken. Platelet aggregation was quantified by measuring the fall in single platelet count after stimulation with 2 micrograms.ml-1 collagen or 50 nM platelet activating factor (PAF), or by rollermixing aliquots of blood to initiate spontaneous aggregation. The platelet function tests were completed at 37 degrees C within 10 min of venepuncture. The stable metabolite of PGI2, 6-keto PGF1 alpha, was measured in serum. There was inhibition of spontaneous platelet aggregation by dipyridamole (p less than 0.004), aspirin (p less than 0.005), and the combination of dipyridamole plus aspirin (p less than 0.0001) as compared with placebo. PAF induced platelet aggregation was inhibited by dipyridamole (p less than 0.002) and the combination of dipyridamole plus aspirin (p less than 0.0001) but aspirin alone had no inhibitory effect. Collagen induced platelet aggregation was inhibited by all three treatments: dipyridamole (p less than 0.06), aspirin (p less than 0.0001), and the combination of dipyridamole plus aspirin (p less than 0.0001). PGI2 generation was markedly inhibited by aspirin (p less than 0.0001) and the combination doses (p less than 0.0001) but was unaffected by dipyridamole alone. Of the three active treatments, only dipyridamole alone significantly (p less than 0.001) increased red cell deformability; there was a modest decrease in red cell deformability with aspirin.
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Despite large clinical trials, there is no consensus about the best antithrombotic strategy for the secondary prevention of non-cardioembolic ischaemic stroke.This retrospective study is the first to combine the results of the most important trials and to integrate data on study validity, effectiveness, adverse events, risk of non-compliance, and cost.
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Over a 10-year period, between 1986 and 1996, 865 patients underwent primary aortic valve replacement (AVR) with the St. Jude Medical mechanical prosthesis. Patients who had undergone valve replacement with a different type of prosthesis previously were excluded from this study. Patient age ranged from 11 to 79 years. The mean age was 42.9 +/- 14.54. The gender distribution was 396 men (45.8%) and 469 women (54.2%). All patients received 2.5 mg/day Coumadin after extubation. A combination of the antiaggregant therapy (Dypridamole 3X 75 mg/day, Asprine 100 mg/day) was added after removal of the chest tubes. The dosage of Coumadin was maintained constant regardless of the prothrombin time (PT) or cardiac rhythm. There were 101 valve-related complications (4.2% per patient year [ppy]) occurring in the late follow-up period. Of these complications; 38 were anticoagulant-related hemorrhage (1.58% ppy), 3 were paravalvular leak (0.12% ppy), and 36 were thromboembolism (1.4% ppy). There were 24 reoperations (0.99% ppy) and 17 late deaths. The linearized late mortality rate was 0.7% ppy. Long-term survival estimates at 5 and 10 years were 97.14 +/- 0.82% and 94.86 +/- 1.54%, respectively. We conclude from the data that the St. Jude Medical valve may allow the use of a low level of anticoagulation. This study shows that fixed dose oral anticoagulation does not increase the rate of thromboembolism in patients with the St. Jude aortic valve. This protocol does not result in reduction of bleeding complications, however.
The combination of low-dose aspirin and dipyridamole is more effective than aspirin alone in reducing the risk of recurrent stroke and other major cardiovascular events in patients with a recent transient ischemic attack or minor stroke. It is unknown whether this also applies to patients with a disabling stroke.
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A Medline and Pubmed literature search (January 1966 to February 2003) was conducted to identify articles relating APT and POAD. Manual cross referencing was also used.