The trial was stopped prematurely, according to prespecified rules, after a median follow-up period of 21 months. The primary outcome occurred in 18.3% of patients in the eplerenone group as compared with 25.9% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.74; P<0.001). A total of 12.5% of patients receiving eplerenone and 15.5% of those receiving placebo died (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.93; P=0.008); 10.8% and 13.5%, respectively, died of cardiovascular causes (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.94; P=0.01). Hospitalizations for heart failure and for any cause were also reduced with eplerenone. A serum potassium level exceeding 5.5 mmol per liter occurred in 11.8% of patients in the eplerenone group and 7.2% of those in the placebo group (P<0.001).
Modes of action of antiandrogens, their side effects as well as indications for their application to androgen-dependent skin conditions. Particular attention is paid to the possibilities for topical medication with antiandrogenic active substances.
Aldosterone administration to E(0) mice increased macrophage oxidative stress and atherosclerotic lesion development. Blocking of the mineralocorticoid receptor and inhibition of tissue ACE and/or the angiotensin receptor-1 reduced aldosterone deleterious pro-oxidative and proatherogenic effects.
aldactone generic name
We observed a trend to increase creatinine clearance and a significant reduction in plasma active renin and plasma aldosterone after the discontinuation of diuretics. The subsequent introduction of octreotide reduced glomerular filtration rate, although it significantly decreased plasma active renin and plasma aldosterone. In contrast, the addition of octreotide to diuretic treatment significantly increased glomerular filtration rate, urine volume and sodium excretion. The magnitudes of the decreases in plasma-active renin and aldosterone produced by the combination of octreotide and diuretics were similar to those produced by octreotide alone or by the discontinuation of diuretics.
Gout is the most common type of inflammatory arthritis in man caused by deposition of urate crystals into the joints as the result of elevated serum urate levels. A case of a 59-year-old patient with untreated, long-lasting gout and clinical manifestation of decompensated global dilated cardiomyopathy is presented. Examination revealed generalized pitting edema extending from both lower extremities to the sacrum, abdominal, and thoracic wall, with scrotal swelling and upper extremity involvement, an exceptionally vast generalized edema, i.e. anasarca. Proximal and distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet were swollen and deformed, with marked yellow tophi nodules. Laboratory studies revealed high serum uric acid concentration (546 micromol/L), decreased creatinine clearance (0.8 mL/s) and albumin concentration (27.4 g/L), as well as increased total urine protein mass (0.35 g/24 h). X-rays of the affected feet and fists showed punched-out lesions of the subchondral bone with overhanging bony margins in the first metatarsophalangeal, proximal, and distal interphalangeal joints of both hands. The extreme clinical presentation resolved upon intravenous administration of diuretics and pleurocentesis, followed by oral medications including furosemide, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, spironolactone and digoxin. Since serum urate level has been identified as an independent risk factor for the development of ischemic heart and chronic kidney disease, regulation of urate concentration is necessary, especially in patients diagnosed with gout.
The effect of the diuretic spironolactone (SL) on expression and function of intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp), as well as its impact on intestinal absorption of digoxin, was explored. Rats were treated with daily doses of 200 micromol/kg b.wt. of SL intraperitoneally for 3 consecutive days. The small intestine was divided into four equal segments of approximately 25 cm, with segment I being the most proximal. Brush-border membranes were isolated and used in analysis of P-gp expression by Western blot analysis. P-gp content increased in the SL group by 526, 292, 210, and 622% over controls for segments I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Up-regulation of apical P-gp was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. P-gp transport activity was explored in intestinal sacs prepared from segment IV using two different model substrates. Serosal to mucosal transport (efflux) of rhodamine 123 was 140% higher, and mucosal to serosal transport (absorption) of digoxin was 40% lower in the SL group, both indicating increased P-gp function. In vivo experiments showed that intestinal absorption of a single dose of digoxin administered p.o. was attenuated by SL pretreatment. Thus, concentration of digoxin in portal and peripheral blood was lower in SL versus control groups, as well as its accumulation in kidney and liver. Urinary excretion of digoxin was significantly decreased in the SL group, probably reflecting decreased systemic availability of digoxin for subsequent urinary elimination. We conclude that SL induces P-gp expression with potential impact on intestinal absorption of substrates with therapeutic application.
To evaluate safety and efficacy data for potassium-binding resins in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)-associated hyperkalemia.
A survey questionnaire was sent to 210 patients, and a comparison chart review of all patients to whom the survey was sent was made.