Eighteen volunteers (10 males, 8 females) received the three treatments once daily for 5 days, with a mean 7-day washout period between treatments. Intradermal tests, using 0.05 ml from a solution containing 100 microg/ml of histamine, were performed at baseline and at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 10 and 24 h after a single dose and repeated 5-day dose, and in addition after 34, 48, 58 and 72 h after repeated 5-day dose.
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The study aim was to determine the impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) on early and late clinical outcomes, left atrial and ventricular remodeling, late tricuspid valve regurgitation and pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients after mitral valve replacement (MVR).
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In this pooled analysis of 2 allergen exposure unit studies, FEX60/PSE120 had an onset of action of 45 minutes and a sustained effect throughout the 6-hour study period in subjects with moderate to severe SAR.
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Antihistamines have been evaluated for usefulness in the treatment of asthma for more than 50 years. Interest was limited until the introduction of newer compounds that were free of much of the dose-limiting sedation associated with the earlier drugs.
Sedation is the most frequent side effect of H(1)-antihistamines, and, sometimes, it may be life-threatening for patients. Evaluation of the sedative properties of H(1)-antihistamines is important to improve the patients' quality of life (QOL). Therefore, we carried out a large-scale surveillance quantified through a questionnaire using visual analog scale (VAS) from 1,742 patients. The results showed that the degree of sleepiness caused by some nonsedative second-generation antihistamines, including fexofenadine, olopatadine and cetirizine, was disease dependent. In atopic dermatitis, an unexpectedly low VAS score of sleepiness was obtained for the first-generation antihistamine d-chlorpheniramine, which is similar to those obtained for bepotastine and epinastine. d-Chlorpheniramine also showed a high VAS score in efficacy. Meanwhile, fexofenadine showed a higher VAS score of sleepiness in atopic dermatitis than those obtained in the other allergic diseases including allergic rhinitis, urticaria and asthma. In asthma, a higher VAS score of sleepiness was found for olopatadine, ebastine and cetirizine, when compared with d-chlorpheniramine. On the other hand, bepotastine showed the lowest VAS score for sleepiness. Our findings suggest the existence of unknown factors influencing the sedative properties of H(1)-antihistamines. Therefore, appropriate H(1)-antihistamines may need to be selected, depending on allergic diseases, to improve patients' QOL.
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Our results indicate that the peripherally restricted 2(nd) generation H1-receptor antagonists fexofenadine and ebastine are capable of reversing post stress visceral hypersensitivity in rat. These data justify future IBS patient trials with these well tolerated compounds.
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To determine the ability of azelastine nasal spray to improve rhinitis symptoms in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis who remained symptomatic after treatment with fexofenadine.
Short-term goals were achieved by the reforms, but long-term expectations were not. Drug de-reimbursement reduced both drug costs for the SSN and the number of GP consultations. Fewer patients were treated overall (mostly with advanced disease), with consequent disease worsening and increase in complications. An increase in CVI-related hospitalisation resulted. In contrast, preventative measures, including patient education and prophylactic treatment, exhibit both clinical and cost effectiveness. Larger studies are required to confirm these preliminary results.
Allergic rhinitis causes significant economic losses and substantial reductions in quality of life. Improving a patient's symptoms can therefore enhance the patient's quality of life.