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In a matched historical cohort study, we examined whether participation in RCTs was associated with improved health outcomes.
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Oral antidiabetic drug use in pregnancy is not recommended secondary to known effects on the fetus such as congenital abnormalities, fetal hyperinsulinemia, macrosomia, and neonatal hypoglycemia. Although this infant had no abnormalities after being exposed to gliclazide and ramipril during the first 16 weeks of gestation, this case is not an unconditionally acceptable indication for safety of these medications in pregnancy. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors increase fetal risks and therefore should not be used during pregnancy, according to data from animals and humans. There are few data available on use of sulfonylureas; thus, their use should also be avoided during pregnancy.
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In the DREAM trial, involving more than 5000 patients with "impaired glucose tolerance", ramipril had no preventive effect, while rosiglitazone had cardiac adverse effects.
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Thirty-one patients died of CV disease (0.7%/patient-year), and 149 patients experienced at least 1 CV outcome (3.3%/patient-year). Overall, 202 CV events (4.5%/patient-year) occurred. The CV outcome rate was not related significantly to randomized interventions. In multivariable analyses, 7 baseline risk factors remained independently associated with increased risk for the CV composite outcome after controlling for age, sex, baseline GFR, and baseline proteinuria group: pulse pressure, duration of hypertension, abnormal electrocardiogram result, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, serum urea nitrogen level, urine protein-creatinine ratio, urine sodium-potassium ratio, and annual income less than 15,000 dollars.
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Angiotensin receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and diuretics all cause reactive rises in plasma renin concentration, but particularly high levels have been reported with aliskiren. This prompted speculation that blockade of plasma renin activity with aliskiren could be overwhelmed, leading to paradoxical increases in blood pressure. This meta-analysis of data from 4877 patients from 8 randomized, double-blind, placebo- and/or active-controlled trials examined this hypothesis. The analysis focused on the incidence of paradoxical blood pressure increases above predefined thresholds, after > or =4 weeks of treatment with 300 mg of aliskiren, angiotensin receptor blockers (300 mg of irbesartan, 100 mg of losartan, or 320 mg of valsartan), 10 mg of ramipril, 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide, or placebo. There were no significant differences in the frequency of increases in systolic (>10 mm Hg; P=0.30) or diastolic (>5 mm Hg; P=0.65) pressure among those treated with aliskiren (3.9% and 3.1%, respectively), angiotensin receptor blockers (4.0% and 3.7%), ramipril (5.7% and 2.6%), or hydrochlorothiazide (4.4% and 2.7%). Increases in blood pressure were considerably more frequent in the placebo group (12.6% and 11.4%; P<0.001). None of the 536 patients with plasma renin activity data who received 300 mg of aliskiren exhibited an increase in systolic pressure >10 mm Hg that was associated with an increase in plasma renin activity >0.1 ng/mL per hour. In conclusion, the incidence of blood pressure increases with aliskiren was similar to that during treatment with other antihypertensive drugs. Blood pressure rises on aliskiren treatment were not associated with increases in plasma renin activity. This meta-analysis found no evidence that aliskiren uniquely causes paradoxical rises in blood pressure.
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223 patients with mild or moderately severe congestive heart failure who were taking diuretics with or without digitalis.
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To evaluate if ramipril, with or without simultaneous use of simvastatin, would be capable of reducing oxidative stress of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.
A statistical experimental design was used to optimise a capillary electrophoretic separation method for eight inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme: enalapril, lisinopril, quinapril, fosinopril, perindopril, ramipril, benazepril, and cilazapril. Because a free solution capillary electrophoresis system did not achieve a complete separation of these eight compounds in one run, the usefulness of alkylsulphonates as ion-pairing agents was investigated. After preliminary investigations to determine the experimental domain and the most important factors, a three-level full-factorial design was applied to study the impact of the pH and the molarity of the ion-pairing agent on the separation. Improved separations were obtained suggesting a favourable effect of ion-pairing interactions between analytes and the additive; however, it remained impossible to separate them all in one run. A combination of two systems was still necessary for the selective identification of these structurally-related substances.
The mean observation time was 90 days. Men accounted for 48.3% of the study population and their average age was 41,5±14,0 and women accounted for 51.7% and their average age was 43.4±13.9. About 80% of the patients received valproic acid or carbamazepine before administration of tiagabine. Other most commonly used drugs included acetylsalicylic acid and ramipril. In the group of 185 patients who used drugs inducing liver enzymes before administration of tiagabine, 13% received a dose below 30 mg of tiagabine and 87% above 30 mg. In the group of patients treated with drugs which do not induce liver enzymes, 91.6% received tiagabine in a dose below 30 mg and 8.4% in a dose above 30 mg. The percentage of patients experiencing epileptic seizures was reduced from 72.2% between visits V0-V1 to 58.7% between visits V1-V2 (p<0.001). A decrease in the population of patients who experienced seizures and a reduction of the number of seizures were observed in all age groups. In the youngest age group, the number of seizures since the last visit went down from 5.4 to 3.7 (the average difference amounted to 1.7), in the 40-59 years age group, the number of seizures went down from 4.0 to 3.1 (the average difference amounted to 0.9) and in patients above the age of 60, from 3.0 to 2.1 (the average difference amounted to 0.9) (p<0.001; p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). Adverse events occurred in 4 (i.e. 0.9%) patients, dizziness being the most common. The Mini Mental State Examination (MM SE) was performed in 25% of patients. Cognitive functions did not deteriorate. The average MM SE score corresponded to a mild level of cognitive impairment.
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Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: nondiabetic controls, streptozocin-treated diabetic rats (50 mg/kg), diabetic rats receiving ramipril (1 mg/kg) and diabetic rats treated with the combination of ramipril (1 mg/kg) and eplerenone (100 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. Our model produced early-stage diabetic nephropathy.
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Onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) follows a diurnal periodicity, with a peak incidence between 6:00 a.m. and noon. Beta blockers and aspirin decrease the rate of AMI and blunt the peak incidence, but such an effect has not been evaluated for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The effect of ramipril on onset of symptomatic AMI was evaluated in 4-hour periods over a 24-hour cycle in men and women who were > or =55 years of age, had cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus with > or =1 other risk factor, and participated in the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) trial. During the 4.5-year follow-up, AMI was documented in 383 of 4,596 participants allocated to ramipril and in 491 of 4,598 participants allocated to placebo (8.3% vs 10.7%, p <0.001). Ramipril decreased rates of AMI at each period and attenuated, but did not blunt, the peak incidence. In conclusion, inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme decreased AMI over a 24-hour period, but this enzyme does not seem to play a major role in the circadian periodicity of this acute event.