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The antibiotic resistance of H. pylori strains in group A(1) and group A(2) was (%): amoxicillin: 2.4, 10; clarithromycin: 21.9, 43.1; tinidazole: 31.7, 70; rifabutin: 2.4, 4; and levofloxacin: 9.7, 12.2, respectively. In group A(1) with susceptibility test-driven therapy, eradication was 97.2%, and in group B(1) with empirical treatment, 94.1% (n.s.). In group A(2) with susceptibility test, eradication was 97.5%, whereas in group B(2) with empirical treatment 81.2% (p < .01).
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Bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are an important cause of chronic respiratory tract infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Intrinsic resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents, including a variety of β-lactam antibiotics, is frequently observed in Bcc strains. Resistance to β-lactams is most commonly mediated by efflux pumps, alterations in penicillin-binding proteins or the expression of β-lactamases. β-lactamase inhibitors are able to restore the in vitro activity of β-lactam molecules against a variety of Gram-negative species, but the effect of these inhibitors on the activity of β-lactam treatment against Bcc species is still poorly investigated.
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The present study has been undertaken to apply the concept of nanoparticulate mucopenetrating drug delivery system for complete eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), colonised deep into the gastric mucosal lining. Most of the existing drug delivery systems have failed on account of either improper mucoadhesion or mucopenetration and no dosage form with dual activity of adhesion and penetration has been designed till date for treating H. pylori induced disorders. In the present study, novel chitosan-alginate polyelectrolyte complex (CS-ALG PEC) nanoparticles of amoxicillin have been designed and optimized for various variables such as pH and mixing ratio of polymers, concentrations of polymers, drug and surfactant, using 3(3) Box-Behnken design. Various studies like particle size, surface charge, percent drug entrapment, in-vitro mucoadhesion and in-vivo mucopenetration of nanoparticles on rat models were conducted. The optimised FITC labelled CS-ALG PEC nanoparticles have shown comparative low in-vitro mucoadhesion with respect to plain chitosan nanoparticles, but excellent mucopenetration and localization as observed with increased fluorescence in gastric mucosa continuously over 6 hours, which clinically can help in eradication of H. pylori.
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In our study, the overall prevalence of nosocomial infections was 34.5%. Surgical site infections were the most common (27,1%). Escherichia coli was the most common germ (11.9%).
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The patient was treated with oral amoxicillin and clavulanate and responded very well clinically; however, imaging examinations were repeated up to 6 months because of multilevel involvement. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging findings at 3 months and 6 months showed decreased signal intensity, and luckily, there was no evidence of vertebral destruction.
Electrospun nanocomposite matrices based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) and amoxicillin (AMX) were designed and investigated for dental applications. nHAp provides good biocompatibility, bioactivity, osteoconductivity, and osteoinductivity properties, and AMX, as antibiotic model, controls and/or reduces bacterial contamination of periodontal defects while enhancing tissue regeneration. A series of polymeric nanocomposites was obtained by varying both the antibiotic and nHAp contents. Fibrous membranes of different compositions were obtained by electrospinning technique, and morphological, thermal, mechanical and surface properties were characterized. The incorporation of AMX seemed to alter the nHAp distribution within the microfibrous matrix. The interaction between AMX and nHAp affected the mechanical performance and modulated the antibiotic release behavior. AMX release profiles presented a burst release that depended on nHAp content, followed by a slow release stage where the drug content (85-100%) was released in 3 weeks. The antimicrobial activity of the AMX-loaded membranes was tested with four bacterial strains depended on both the drug and nHAp contents. Extensive mineralization in simulated body fluid (SBF) was evidenced by SEM/EDX analysis after 21 days. The studied electrospun nanocomposite amoxicillin-loaded membranes could be a promising fibrous-based antibiotic carrier system for dental and tissue engineering applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.
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Data on dispensed prescriptions of antibiotics (ATC-codes J01) and asthma medication (ATC-codes R03A-D) were requested from the Prescribed Drug Register. The association between dispensed prescriptions of different classes of antibiotics and asthma medication was analysed with Cox regression and a descriptive sequence symmetry analysis.
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There are concerns about the quality of generic drugs in the postmarketing setting. The aim was to establish whether two generic formulations of amoxicillin, available on the Italian market, fulfil the criteria for clinical pharmacokinetic bioequivalence vs. the branded drug.
The influence of amoxicillin (AMPC) on drug-resistant Haemophilus influenzae gene must be carefully considered in using antibiotics to treat children with respiratory infections. We studied 197 isolates from pediatric outpatients and their previous antibiotic use in northern Japan from 2004 to 2006. We found that the population treated with antibiotics was 45%-11% decrease from the previous 2001-2003 study. Those treated with AMPC increased by 15% and those treated with cephalosporins decreased by 18%. Susceptibility testing showed that strains resistant to ampicillin (ABPC) increased from 31% to 49%. Strains with altered pbp gene(s) in ABPC-susceptible strains also increased. AMPC use was clearly associated with strains with resistant gene(s) such as beta-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae (low-BLNAR), BLNAR, beta-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae (BLPAR) beta-lactamase-producing amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant H. influenzae (BLPACR).
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One patient was excluded from control group. Pain perception, InIn, and ExIn were not different between groups at each time point. However, these variables were different from the previous time point within each group.