Stents were coated with 40 mM solutions of leflunomide (L) or rapamycin (R) or were left uncoated (BM). Neointima formation was assessed 6 weeks after implantation into Sprague Dawley rats by optical coherence tomographies (OCT) and histopathology. In vitro proliferation assays were performed using isolated endothelial and smooth-muscle-cells from Sprague Dawley rats to investigate the cell-specific pharmacokinetic effect of leflunomide and rapamycin.
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In a hamster-to-C57BL/6 nude mouse heart transplantation model, a 2-week course of leflunomide was used after transplantation or for pretreating donors. Nontolerant B lymphocytes were transferred to recipients after transplantation of first or second xenogeneic heart grafts that were transplanted with or without leflunomide treatment.
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Cidofovir and Leflunomide are used empirically in the treatment of BK virus nephropathy. The aim of this study is to quantify the antiviral activity of these drugs.
Sixty-five patients completed 20 weeks of treatment, and 71.6% were responders based on the ACR20 criteria. After 20 weeks, the mean changes were -16.3 for tender joint count, -12.0 for swollen joint count, -44.0 for physician global assessment, -34.3 for patient global assessment, -22.7 for erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and -0.65 for the Health Assessment Questionnaire score. Adverse events occurred in 40.5% of the patients, and were considered serious in four patients who discontinued therapy. Abnormal liver function was noted for 16 patients (21.6%). Two of these patients were withdrawn from the study; after discontinuing the medication, their liver function recovered fully.
We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with a seronegative rheumatoid arthritis who developed pustular psoriasis whilst on etanercept and subsequently developed disseminated herpes simplex on infliximab.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of methotrexate (MTX), leflunomide (LEF) and low-dose MTX and LEF (MTX + LEF) combined treatment for psoriatic arthritis (PsA).
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Systemic review of the Chinese literature from 1999 to June 2010 for case reports and case series of LEF-induced ILD in nephropathy patients.
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Rheumatoid arthritis is a common and potentially devastating condition which did not have good treatment options until recently. Pharmacological treatment should not just comprise antiinflammatory agents and corticosteroids. The current therapeutic approach is to start a disease modifying agent early in the illness to prevent eventual joint damage. Older disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) include methotrexate, sulphasalazine and hydroxychloroquine. Newer ones such as leflunomide and cyclosporine are also used. A recent advance in the management of rheumatoid arthritis is the use of biological agents which block certain key molecules involved in the pathogenesis of the illness. They include tumour necrosis factor (TNF)- blocking agents such as infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab, the anti-CD 20 agent rituximab and CTLA-4 Ig abatacept. Other agents which are in development include anti-IL6 tocilizumab, anti-CD22 and anti-lymphostat B. In this review, the efficacy and side effects of these agents, their impact on current clinical practice and future trends are discussed.
The mean SDAI calculated for patients at baseline in study MN301 was 50.06 (range 25.10-96.10) and was, respectively, 50.55 (range 22.10-98.10) and 43.20 (range 12.90-78.20) in studies MN302 and US301. In all three trials, the SDAI was correlated with a high level of statistical significance to the DAS 28 and HAQ scores at baseline, endpoint and change at endpoint. Patients achieving the ACR 20, 50, 70 or 90% response showed proportionate changes in the SDAI. Analysis of surveyed physician responses showed a significant association between the perception of disease activity and the SDAI, as well as changes in the SDAI. Qualitative analysis of radiographic progression at 6 and 12 months for patients showing either major, minor or no improvement of the SDAI showed correspondingly larger increases of the total Sharp score at 12 months.
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Response to therapy was maintained to 48 weeks of treatment in patients who continued to receive LEF and MTX during the extension. Importantly, ACR20 response rates after 24 weeks of LEF therapy were similar between patients switched from PLA to LEF without loading dose, and those who received a loading does of LEF (100 mg/day x 2 days) at randomization. Fewer adverse events were reported in patients switched to LEF without a loading dose.
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We performed a genome-wide analysis to reveal effects at the transcription and translation levels of all yeast genes. While negligible relative changes were observed in steady-state mRNA levels, a significant number of mRNAs appeared to have altered ribosomal density. Notably, 40% of the genes having reliable signals changed their ribosomal association by more than one ribosome. Yet, no general correlations with physical or functional features of the mRNA were observed. Ribosome Density Mapping (RDM) along four of the mRNAs with increased association revealed an increase in ribosomal density towards the end of the coding region for at least two of them. Read-through analysis did not reveal any increase in read-through of a premature stop codon by the mutant strain.
Thirty rats of chronic glomerular nephritis model were established by injecting cationic bovine serum albumin (C-BSA). Rats with successfully modeled were randomly divided into model group and observation group. Another 15 rats injected with physiological saline in the same way were chosen as the control group. Modeling after 2 weeks, rats in the observation group were given leflunomide meters suspension by gavage treatment with 5 mg/(kg x d). Rats in the control group and model group were given equal volume of saline. Rats were killed after continuous intragastric for 4 weeks. The levels of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum total cholesterol, serum albumin and 24 h urine protein were recorded. mRNA and protein levels of peripheral blood tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected by RT-PCR and ELISA method. Peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets were evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM).