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Also known as: Trihexyphenidyl.

Description

Artane is used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease. It is also used to treat and prevent the same muscular conditions when they are caused by drugs such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon), haloperidol (Haldol), thiothixene (Navane), and others.

name of Artane is Trihexyphenidyl.

Artane is also known as Trihexyphenidyl, Triphen.

Brand name of Artane is Artane.

Dosage

Take Artane by mouth before or after meals.

If Artane tends to dry your mouth excessively, it may be better to take it before meals, unless it causes nausea. If taken after meals, thirst can be improved by sucking hard sugarless candy, chewing gum, or drinking water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Artane suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Artane and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Artane are:

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  • artane cost

Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Artane if you are allergic to Artane components.

Be very careful with Artane if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Artane may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. Alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.

Do not become overheated in hot weather or while you are being active. Heatstroke may occur.

Lab tests, including eye exams, may be performed while you use Artane. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid driving machine.

It can be dangerous to stop Artane taking suddenly.

artane generic name

A patient with severe variant angina that was refractory to conventional treatment became symptom free when she was treated with benzhexol (trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride), a cholinergic blocking agent used in the management of Parkinson's disease. There was a brief psychotic reaction when a large dose was taken and some memory impairment on the maintenance dose. Benzhexol should be used with caution but may prove to be an additional therapeutic agent in the management of severe variant angina.

artane cost

A reproducible and selective method was developed for the analysis of three anti-pschycotics, i.e. haloperidol, trifluoperazine and trihexyphenidyl in bulk and dosage forms using packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The analytes were resolved by elution with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide doped with 16.67% (v/v) methanol containing 0.8% isopropylamine. Parallel studies were performed by HPLC using ion pairing reagent and a comparison is discussed. The method was successfully used for the assay of three formulations containing a combination of: (1) haloperidol-trihexyphenidyl; (2) haloperidol-trifluoperazine; (3) trifluoperazine-trihexyphenidyl.

artane generic

Twenty-four male subjects were randomized to receive two oral dosage forms of trihexyphenidyl HCl (alpha-cyclohexyl-alpha-phenyl-1-piperidinepropanol HCl). The dosage regimens were (1) a 5-mg immediate release (IR) tablet given twice daily at time zero and 12 h later, and (2) two 5-mg sustained-release (SR) capsule formulations given daily. The number of adverse experiences following the SR formulation were approximately 50% of those for the IR formulation, the peak concentration (Cmax) after the SR formulation was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) than that after the first dose of the IR formulation, and the time to reach Cmax (tmax) was significantly longer after the SR formulation (p less than 0.05). The SR formulation maintained serum concentrations above 50, 60, and 70% of Cmax values for average time periods of 11.7, 9.4, and 5.9 h, respectively, compared with values of 1.8, 1.2, and 0.9 h after the IR formulation; the differences were all significant (p less than 0.05). The mean elimination half-life (t1/2) was similar (p greater than 0.05) after the SR (10.1 h) and IR (8.7 h) formulations. The statistical power of the study was 98.1% to detect a 20% difference in the area under the curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC0----infinity) between formulations. Although the AUC0----infinity after the SR formulation was statistically smaller (p less than 0.05) than after the IR tablet, the difference was less than 20%. Therefore, the SR formulation was bioequivalent to the IR tablet formulation of trihexyphenidyl.

artane generic name

Anti-PD treatment in Xi'an did not strictly follow the standardized protocol, with few patients using dopamine agonist and over 50% of the patients changed their drugs randomly.

artane cost

After a mean post-operative follow-up period of 22.3 months, the scores of axial symptoms on UPDRS part II (ADL score) and part III (motor score) deteriorated by 87% and 54% (baseline), respectively, compared with the pre-operative scores (P < 0.001 for both comparisons). After adding trihexyphenidyl to dopaminergic medication with stimulation, the scores of axial symptoms on UPDRS part II and part III improved from baseline by 33% and 39%, respectively (P < 0.001 for both comparisons).

artane generic

We have further characterized the syndrome of a primary condition of tics associated with persistent focal/segmental dystonia. Apart from the presence of dystonia, our data suggest that these patients are differentiated from pure tic disorders by a later age of onset, lesser severity of tics, and lower frequency of associated features.

artane generic name

Central nervous system stimulants, tranquillizers and other central nervous system depressants, antiemetics, antihistamine drugs and autonomic blocking agents were examined for their ability to prevent the pecking response in pigeons induced by apomorphine (250 mug/kg intramuscularly). Reduction in the proportion of positive responses or significant increase in the latent period of pecking were taken as the criterion of effectiveness. Protection was afforded by caffeine, lysergic acid diethylamide, morphine, rauwolscine, triflupromazine and yohimbine. In addition, a significant increase in latent period was produced by artane, pentobarbitone, benactyzine, 2-bromolysergic acid diethylamide, cyclizine, diphenhydramine, ergotoxine, hyoscine, promethazine, 5-(2-chloroethyl)-4-methylthiazole and trimethobenzamide. Most of these drugs influenced the pecking and emetic responses to apomorphine in an identical manner. It is possible that identical receptors may be concerned with apomorphine pecking (in pigeons) and emesis (in other species).

artane cost

A case of possible organophosphate-induced parkinsonism is presented. The patient was a crop duster with numerous episodes of acute organophosphate intoxication and chronic organophosphate exposure. The etiology of parkinsonism is discussed in terms of a balance hypothesis between cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum. A possible relationship between chronic organophosphate exposure and alterations in central cholinergic or dopaminergic activity is suggested. The course of this patient raises the possibility that agricultural workers may be at risk for the late development of parkinsonism.

artane generic

α-Synuclein (αS) assembly has been implicated as a critical step in the development of Lewy body diseases such as Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Melatonin (Mel), a secretory product of the pineal gland, is known to have beneficial effects such as an antioxidant function and neuroprotection. To elucidate whether Mel has an antiassembly effect, here we used circular dichroism spectroscopy, photoinduced crosslinking of unmodified proteins, thioflavin S fluorescence, size exclusion chromatography, electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to examine the effects of Mel on the αS assembly. We also examined the effects of Mel on αS-induced cytotoxicity by assaying 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide metabolism in αS-treated, primary neuronal cells. Initial studies revealed that Mel blocked αS fibril formation as well as destabilizing preformed αS fibrils. Subsequent evaluation of the assembly-stage specificity of the effect showed that Mel was able to inhibit protofibril formation, oligomerization, and secondary structure transitions. Importantly, Mel decreased αS-induced cytotoxicity. These data suggest a mechanism of action for Mel, inhibition of assembly of toxic polymers and protection of neurons from their effect.

artane generic name

Experiment 1 tested the generality of Carlton's hypothesis that central muscarinic cholinergic pathways are involved in habituation of exploration. The effects of 3 muscarinic antagonists were tested in a holeboard, under 2 test conditions, i.e. with objects absent or present. Both the frequency and the duration of head-dipping were used as measures of exploration. Scopolamine prevented habituation only of the frequency of head-dipping, and only when objects were present. Atropine and benzhexol did not impair the habituation of either frequency of duration of head-dipping in either test condition. The impairment of habituation seemed therefore to be specific to scopolamine, and to the more complex test condition, and thus there was little to justify the suggestion that central cholinergic paths were generally involved. Experiment 2 investigated the effects of muscarinic antagonists on habituation of distraction. None of the drugs affected the distraction to tones, nor the subsequent habituation to these stimuli. Central cholinergic paths do not therefore seem to be involved in habituation of this behavioral response.

artane cost

The effects of a single administration of muscarinic cholinergic agents on the level of muscarinic M1-receptor messenger RNA (M1-R mRNA) in the rat striatum were studied. Carbachol increased the M1-R mRNA expression rapidly and transiently, while trihexyphenidyl decreased it. These results suggest that muscarinic cholinergic agents participate in the positive regulation of muscarinic receptor mRNA in the early stage after treatment, contrary to the negative regulation in the chronic stage.

artane generic

Intraventricular administration of 1,6-aminosuberyl-arginine8-vasopressin or somatostatin in rats barrel rotation, a peculiar rotation along the sagittal body axis. The vasopressin-induced barrel rotation was markedly enhanced by fluphenazine, haloperidol, 6-hydroxydopamine or alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine but was unaffected by (D-Ala2, MePhe4, Met(O)5-ol)-enkephalin. The enhancement of the rotation behavior of fluphenazine was prevented by pretreatment with trihexy-phenidyl a muscarinic receptor blocker. These observations clearly show that vasopressin can elicit barrel rotation and that dopaminergic inhibition and cholinergic activation are concomitantly involved.

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artane generic name 2015-02-24

Two adolescents who developed severe extrapyramidal and hypothalamic reactions due to haloperidol therapy are describe. This is a rarely reported result of utilizing this medication in children and youth, and caution is urged in its use Imdur Generic . Prolonged reactions have occurred.

artane cost 2016-05-01

Disruption of cholinergic neurotransmission may result in memory impairment. In this study the anticholinergic drug, trihexyphenidyl, at low doses when administered chronically for one month to Parkinson disease patients caused a decrease in performance on recent Avapro Cost Walmart but not immediate memory tests. Awareness of possible deterioration of memory function of parkinsonian patients on anticholinergic medication is necessary.

artane generic 2016-01-11

Abuse of methamphetamine (MAP) and cocaine causes severe medical and social problems throughout the world. Our previous study found that trihexyphenidyl (THP), a muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, specifically suppressed the rewarding properties of MAP but not of cocaine, as measured by conditioned place preference in mice. The present study examined using in vivo microdialysis whether THP differentially affects the extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the nucleus accumbens and striatum of mice injected with MAP and cocaine in comparison with another antimuscarinic agent, scopolamine (SCP). In addition, locomotor activity was simultaneously measured during microdialysis. In vivo microdialysis experiments revealed that during the initial hour after injection of MAP (1 mg/kg) DA levels increased up to 698% in the nucleus accumbens and Guduchi Oil Online 367% in the striatum as compared to the basal level. These increases were reduced to 293% in the nucleus accumbens and 207% in the striatum by treatment with 5 mg/kg THP. However, SCP (3 mg/kg) had no effect on the increases in extracellular DA levels in both regions after MAP injection. Cocaine (10 mg/kg) increased DA levels during the initial hour to 254% in the nucleus accumbens and 220% in the striatum as compared to the basal level. These increases were unaffected by treatment with either THP or SCP. On the contrary, both THP and SCP enhanced the locomotor-stimulant action of MAP and cocaine. These results, together with our previous finding, suggest that THP may specifically antagonize the rewarding properties of MAP through suppression of DA release in the mesolimbic area without retarding locomotor activity.

artane generic name 2015-11-12

Sixty cases of Parkinson's disease combined with GAB were randomly divided into a combined acupuncture and medication group (group A) and a medication group (group B), 30 cases in each group. In both groups, Madopar basic doses were same, and anticholinergic agents such as Artane were stopped. In group A, Tolterodine was orally taken for 1 mg, twice a day; Baihui (GV 20), Sishengcong (EX-HN 1) and Yintang (EX-HN 3) were punctured with electroacupuncture, once a day. In group B Topamax Buy Online , Tolterodine was orally taken for 2 mg, twice a day. After 6 weeks, the changes of urination and UPDRS III scores were observed, and the adverse reactions were recorded in both groups.

artane cost 2015-08-22

The discriminative stimulus properties of scopolamine, a potent antagonist at muscarinic receptors, were used for testing the discriminative effects of drugs known to act on cholinergic transmission. Rats were trained in a standard two-bar operant conditioning procedure with food as the reinforcer, according to a FR10 schedule. The training dose of scopolamine was progressively reduced from 0.25 mg/kg SC to the low Duricef Generic Name dose of 0.062 mg/kg SC. Scopolamine yielded an accurate discrimination in all the six rats tested. The generalization gradient resulted in an ED50 of 0.027 mg/kg. The scopolamine cue lasted for 1 h and was of central origin, since it was not mimicked by scopolamine methylbromide. The scopolamine stimulus generalized to atropine and trihexyphenidyl (respective ED50 values 2.20 and 0.21 mg/kg SC). Atropine depressed rate of responding, while trihexyphenidyl did not. Antagonism experiments with both direct agonists at the muscarinic receptor (arecoline and oxotremorine) and indirect agonists, i.e., inhibitors of the acetylcholine esterase [physostigmine and tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA)], led to inconsistent results. Increasing the doses of the agonists in order to block the scopolamine cue may be limited by their rate suppressant effect on responding. Based upon previously published results, it is suggested that the muscarinic agonist cue is more useful than the antagonist cue for investigating muscarinic transmission.

artane generic 2015-03-24

The authors found higher serotonin concentrations in the blood of unmedicated chronic schizophrenic patients than in Avelox Generic the blood of medicated schizophrenic patients or normal control subjects. This finding is consistent with the previous observation that the level of monoamine oxidase activity is low in the platelets of chronic schizophrenics.

artane generic name 2016-12-21

A plastic membrane ion-selective electrode applicable to many basic drugs has been developed. The electrode developed was constructed with tricresyl phosphate and a poly(vinyl chloride) matrix on a polytetrafluoroethylene film. The electrode showed a near-Nernstian response to chlorpromazine, trihexyphenidyl, imipramine, dibucaine, papaverine, propranolol, tetracaine, trazodone, quinidine and cinnarizine. The determination of 50 to 3000 micrograms/ml of trazodone hydrochloride in a pH 4.0 acetate buffer solution showed an average recovery of 99.4% (mean standard deviation 0.7%) by direct potentiometry. Inorganic cations and pharmaceutical excipients did not Cymbalta Generic Risk interfere with the determination. Trazodone hydrochloride and trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride in tablets were determined, and the results compared favorably with those obtained by conventional methods.

artane cost 2017-04-17

Our findings demonstrated that the anti-cholinergic agent trihexyphenidyl shows positive effect for a patient population developing deterioration of axial symptoms Zanaflex Cost after STN-DBS. The results in the present study may provide insights into the mechanism of emergence or progression of axial symptoms in patients with PD after STN-DBS.

artane generic 2015-11-11

In rats made cataleptic with haloperidol (5.32 micromol/kg), the bar test was used to assess the possible synergism between the muscarinic antagonist trihexyphenidyl (THP) and selective adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptor antagonists. Neither catalepsy intensity nor latency were affected by a subthreshold dose of THP (0.33 micromol/kg). The selective adenosine A(1) antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropyl-xanthine (DPCPX) (5.15 micromol/kg) caused a small, but significant reduction of catalepsy intensity that remained unchanged when combined with THP. DPCPX had no effect on catalepsy latency, either alone or combined with THP. In contrast, an equimolar dose of the selective adenosine A(2A) antagonist 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)1,2,4-triazolo[2,3-a]-[1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385) (5.15 micromol/kg) produced a significant reduction of catalepsy intensity and increased catalepsy latency. Both effects were potentiated when ZM 241385 was combined with THP. The synergism was more evident when rats were pretreated with a subthreshold dose of ZM 241385 (1.55 micromol/kg) that was unable to modify catalepsy parameters when applied alone, but produced a significant reduction in catalepsy intensity and an increase in catalepsy latency when administered with THP. Catalepsy was unaffected by a combination of equimolar, subthreshold doses of DPCPX (1.55 micromol/kg) and ZM 241385 (1.55 micromol/kg). These findings indicate that the anticataleptic effect of anticholinergics is enhanced only by the selective blockade of adenosine A(2A) receptors.

artane generic name 2017-12-22

The effect of long-acting propranolol hydrochloride (160 mg/d), primidone (250 mg at night), and clonazepam (4 mg/d) on the resting, postural, and kinetic component of tremor was investigated in ten parkinsonian patients in a double-blind crossover design. Tremor was assessed by patient opinion, clinical scoring, and accelerometer recordings. The amplitude and frequency of tremorgrams were determined by spectral analysis. Most patients preferred long-acting propranolol and chose to continue taking the drug. The mean clinical score for resting and postural tremor was significantly decreased by long-acting propranolol but not by primidone or clonazepam. Long-acting propranolol reduced the mean amplitude of resting tremor by 70% and the mean amplitude of postural tremor by 50%. Mean tremor amplitudes were not changed by primidone or clonazepam. Tremor frequency was unaltered by the drugs. No side effects occurred with long-acting propranolol but adverse reactions were common with primidone and clonazepam. Long-acting propranolol is a useful adjuvant therapy for the tremors associated with Parkinson's disease.

artane cost 2016-07-15

Various hallucinations are unpleasant for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Hallucinations are often related to anti-parkinsonian drugs. Tactile hallucinations rarely occur in patients with PD. In contrast to other types of hallucinations, tactile hallucinations often make physicians wonder if a physical abnormality is the underlying cause. However, the relation of tactile hallucinations to anti-parkinsonian drugs remains uncertain because studies are scant. We describe three patients with PD who had tactile hallucinations that were triggered by dopamine agonists. In our patients, tactile hallucinations occurred in a clear sensorium and persisted for a prolonged time. Two patients had clear visual hallucinations such as of insects, which were associated with tactile hallucinations such as of insects tied to the body. Clear tactile sensoria were unpleasant. Dopamine agonists were initiated or the doses were increased during several periods immediately before the onset of tactile hallucinations. Although the other anti-parkinsonian drugs used, such as amantadine, zonisamide, or trihexyphenidyl, were likely to be partly responsible for the tactile hallucinations, our observations suggest that an increase in the dose of dopamine agonists can trigger tactile hallucinations.