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Twenty-seven horses (47 eyes) diagnosed with EK from 2008 to 2012.
Despite high levels of off-label prescribing in primary care in the UK, the majority of GPs claimed to be familiar with the concept, although less than half were aware of this common practice. A clear disparity between perceived and actual reasons for off-label prescribing was noted, possibly due to a reliance on personal experience, colleague experience or previous patient prescription notes as a guide to prescribing.
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Thirty-one atopic patients were randomized into 4 treatment groups, placebo (n = 7), loratadine (n = 8), fexofenadine (n = 8), and cetirizine (n = 8). They were pricked with histamine every 30 min for 4 hrs. The percentage change of the wheal/flare area was calculated.
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In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of 27 patients, following 2 weeks without treatment, subjects used fluticasone with levocetirizine or identical placebo for 2 weeks each. Assessments were the Juniper mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (mini-RQLQ), domiciliary peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF), total nasal symptoms (TNS) scores and nasal nitric oxide concentrations. Effects were interpreted and tested against minimal clinically important differences.
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A 32-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was performed in 2 arms: 20 patients received montelukast 10 mg/d and/or desloratadine 5 mg/d or placebo; 20 patients received montelukast 10 mg/d and/or levocetirizine 5 mg/d or placebo. The treatment periods were separated by 2-week washout periods. Quality of life was assessed on the day before starting treatment and on the last day of each treatment period using the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire. Sleep problems were also assessed.
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Isoniazid and cetirizine do not retain well on reversed-phase columns due to their high polarity. Silica columns, when operated under hydrophilic interaction conditions, do provide excellent retention of these compounds. We have developed simple and proof of concept analytical methods for the analysis of isoniazid and cetirizine in animal and human plasma, respectively. Both methods employed the approach of direct injection of solid-phase extraction (SPE) organic eluents onto silica columns for analysis, thus eliminating evaporation and reconstitution steps that are typically needed for reversed-phase liquid chromatographic analysis. Isoniazid was extracted from animal plasma samples using a Waters Oasis HLB 96-well plate and then eluted with acetonitrile, while cetirizine was extracted from human plasma with a Waters MCX mu-Elute plate and then eluted with acetonitrile containing 5% concentrated ammonium hydroxide. The direct injection of the SPE eluent onto the analytical column was necessary since significant loss of isoniazid was found during the evaporation and reconstitution steps. The method for isoniazid also enabled ultra-fast analysis due to the relatively low back-pressure exhibited by silica columns even under high flow conditions. Both methods show good linearity, accuracy and precision covering the range of 10-2000 ng/mL of isoniazid, and 1-1000 ng/mL of cetirizine in plasma. Substantial time savings were realized as a result of both the elimination of the evaporation and reconstitution steps and the fast chromatographic analysis.
The analytical problem was to control the quality of imported antiasthmatic tablets containing ephedrine hydrochloride, theophylline, papaverine hydrochloride and hydroxyzine hydrochloride. The aim of the analytical method for the assay was to separate, identify and quantify all compounds, at the same time. A gradient capable RP-LC system was used, using a commercially packed Nucleosil C18 column connected to a dual channel variable, programmable wavelength detector. The analysis was performed in the gradient program of increasing concentration of acetonitrile in water. The influence of pH of the mobile phase was established. The proposed method is reliable, reproducible, easy to perform and satisfies the aim.
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Chronic urticaria is a common clinical disorder that is idiopathic in over 75% of cases. Less commonly, urticaria may be the presenting manifestation of an allergic or infectious disease, endocrinopathy, inherited syndrome, or autoimmune disorder. Rarely, urticaria may be a sign of underlying malignancy, including leukemia. C.C. is a 48-year-old white female who was referred for evaluation of recurrent urticaria for 3 years. The pruritic, erythematous wheals were pinpoint, and appeared to be precipitated by heat, stress, and effort. Prick tests were negative except to D. pteronyssinus. CBCs over the past 5 years revealed WBCs of 2,300-5,000 cells/mm3. Skin biopsy revealed interstitial edema with infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells consistent with urticaria. The impression was probable cholinergic urticaria, for which hydroxyzine was prescribed with fair symptomatic control. One year later, she presented with bright red blood per rectum. Repeat physical examination revealed lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. Subsequent laboratory studies showed pancytopenia. Endoscopy was normal except for small, nonbleeding hemorrhoids. Bone marrow biopsy revealed histologic evidence of hair, cell leukemia that was treated with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine. Upon initiation of chemotherapy her pruritus and urticaria subsided. Recent CBC revealed Hgb 9.2 g/dL, platelets 290,000 cells/mm3, and WBC 4,100 cells/mm3. Peripheral blood smear showed no hairy cells.
Patients were randomly assigned to receive a single injection of either 60 mg ketorolac (group 1) or 100 mg meperidine and 50 mg hydroxyzine (group 2). Pain assessment was made using both visual-analog and verbal descriptor scales.
To compare the safety and efficacy of cetirizine with that of hydroxyzine and placebo in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria.
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There is a role for screening and clinical intervention in vulnerable elders using DBI and ARS to help identify those at greatest risk for readmission to the hospital.