atarax 10 mg
Compared with the majority of other SGAHs, cetirizine was generally shown to have a more favourable pharmacological profile, to be well tolerated, be at least equally or more efficacious in attenuating/inhibiting nasal and ocular symptoms and to improve the quality of life in AR patients. The majority of clinical trials investigating the effect of SGAHs in AR patients further indicated that cetirizine was often employed as the main comparator active drug.
Some of the second-generation H1 antihistamines reduce the bronchoconstrictor response after exercise and antigen challenge. For example, terfenadine causes a slight but significant increase in forced expiratory volume after 1 second. At doses of 120 and 240 mg, terfenadine has a protective effect against asthma induced by ultrasonic nebulized distilled water and cold air hyperventilation challenge. Certain other newer antihistamines, such as ketotifen, azelastine, and cetirizine, have additional antiallergy properties. These effects include inhibition of eosinophil, basophil, and neutrophil migration and platelet-activating factor-induced eosinophil accumulation in skin. The ability of cetirizine (and perhaps other antihistamines) to inhibit these responses at usual therapeutic doses may be useful in investigating the late allergic reaction.
atarax generic form
The first EEU in Japan was used successfully to evaluate cetirizine as a treatment for cedar pollinosis. The results confirmed those from studies in other countries, except for the degree of somnolence, which increased in both groups and may have been related to postprandial sleepiness.
atarax overdose fatal
A dissolution test for a once daily combination tablet containing 10 mg of cetirizine dihydrochloride (cetirizine HCl) for immediate release and 240 mg of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (pseudoephedrine HCl) for extended release was developed and validated according to current ICH and FDA guidelines. The cetirizine HCl is contained within an outer layer of the tablet while a semipermeable membrane of cellulose acetate and polyethylene glycol controls the rate at which pseudoephedrine HCl is released from the tablet core. The dissolution method, which uses USP apparatus 2 with paddles rotating at 50 rpm, 1000 ml of deaerated water as the dissolution medium, and reversed-phased HPLC for quantitation, was demonstrated to be robust, discriminating, and transferable. These test conditions were selected after it was demonstrated that the cetirizine HCl portion of the tablet rapidly dissolved in aqueous media over the physiologically relevant pH range of 1.1-7.5, and that the extended-release profile of pseudoephedrine HCl was independent of dissolution conditions (i.e., apparatus, pH, and agitation).
atarax tab 25mg
The Urticaria Patient Daily Diary, including the Urticaria Activity Score, has recently been validated in adults with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU), but its validity in adolescents is unknown. This study was designed to (1) assess the content validity of the Adolescent Urticaria Patient Daily Diary and, (2) collect exploratory data on symptom experiences, sleep interference, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of adolescents with CIU. The Urticaria Patient Daily Diary was modified to increase its relevance with an adolescent population. A qualitative, cross-sectional, multicenter study was then conducted in the United States so that adolescent subjects could provide information on the impact of urticaria on their lives and comment on the diary. Data were collected via in-person semistructured interviews with subjects 12-17 years of age with moderate-to-severe CIU. The most bothersome symptom was itching (44%). The impact of CIU on HRQOL varied. The majority of subjects (78%) reported waking up at least once a night. Overall, subjects found the diary to be clear, easy to comprehend, and easy to complete. Revisions were made to the diary based on feedback from subjects. After nine interviews, no new information was received. The symptoms of CIU are bothersome to adolescents, particularly itch, and urticaria has a negative impact on the sleep of adolescent patients. The final Adolescent Urticaria Patient Daily Diary has evidence of content validity in patients with CIU ranging from 12 to 17 years of age.
atarax generic pills
This retrospective study examined charts of a pediatric dental office between 1999 to 2003. Patients presenting before 36 months old for an initial exam who were diagnosed with early childhood caries were included in the study. Following the initial exam, the patients were treated under GA or CS. These patients were followed to determine their behavior at the 6-, 12-, and 18-month recoil appointments.
atarax 25 mg
Histamine plays a prominent and diverse role in the pathophysiology of allergic disease and therapeutic intervention is therefore typically focused on blocking the effects of this biogenic amine. A new antihistamine, levocetirizine, is the R-enantiomer of cetirizine dihydrochloride and like its parent compound undergoes minimal hepatic metabolism. Levocetirizine has pharmacodynamically and pharmacokinetically favourable characteristics, including high bioavailability, rapid onset of action, limited distribution and a low degree of metabolism. Clinical trials indicate that it is safe and effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria with a minimal number of untoward effects. Furthermore, several recent studies have demonstrated that, in addition to its being a potent antihistamine, levocetirizine has several anti-inflammatory effects that are observed at clinically relevant concentrations that may enhance its therapeutic benefit.
atarax drug classification
Methionine-enkephalin (met-enk) detected in monocytes in psoriatic skin can modulate inflammatory processes and keratinocyte differentiation/proliferation in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of intradermal injection of met-enk on normal human skin and on the development of a delayed type skin hypersensitivity reaction. In 6 healthy volunteers, 50 microl of met-enk (16, 30, and 45 nmol) was injected once in the forearm and the reaction was evaluated clinically and by video-optical recording for 120 min. Compared to vehicle (0.9% saline), met-enk induced a time- and dose-dependent flare reaction, but no significant stimulation of a weal reaction. The flare reaction was maximal after 1 min and disappeared within 45 min. Pre-treatment with the antihistamine cetirizine reduced the flare reaction. Furthermore, the effect of met-enk on lymphocyte/monocyte infiltration and epidermal proliferation in normal skin and on a delayed type skin hypersensitivity reaction was assessed. Met-enk (45 nmol/ 50 microl) was injected at 0, 24 and 48 h. In normal skin, met-enk increased the number of dermal lymphocytes/monocytes (CD3/CD68 positive cells) and the degree of epidermal proliferation (MIBI-Ki67). In a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction induced by tuberculin (PPD), the degree of epidermal proliferation and the number of infiltrating lymphocytes/monocytes were reduced compared to PPD alone. Our study suggests that intradermal injection of met-enk in normal human skin induces an inflammatory reaction that may involve the release of histamine. In contrast, met-enk seems to down-regulate the development of a delayed type skin hypersensitivity reaction. These results may indicate that the direction of the effect of the opioid peptide met-enk on human skin depends on the rate of epidermal proliferation and the activity of immunocompetent cells.
4 mg atarax
To determine the usefulness of oral hydroxyzine for the treatment of symptomatic interstitial cystitis.
atarax dosing information
Fixed dose combination tablets containing ambroxol HCl and cetirizine HCl are clinically used as mucolytic and antiallergic. Several spectrophotometric and HPLC methods have been reported for simultaneous estimation of these drugs with other drugs. The drugs individually and in mixture obeys Beer's law over conc. range 1.2-4.4 microg/mL for cetirizine HCL and for ambroxol HCL 15-52 microg/mL at all five sampling wavelengths (correlation coeff. well above 0.995). The mean recoveries from tablet by standard addition method were 100.18% (+/-2.4) and 100.66 % (+/-2.31). The present work reports simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods for their simultaneous estimation from tablet dosage form.