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This MRSA eradication protocol for newly acquired MRSA demonstrated microbiological efficacy with a large treatment effect.
Despite the health benefits of breastfeeding, initiation and duration rates continue to fall short of international guidelines. Many factors influence a woman's decision to wean; the main reason cited for weaning is associated with lactation complications, such as mastitis.
♦ Objective: Prevention of exit-site infection (ESI) is of paramount importance to peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorhexidine in the prevention of ESI in incident PD patients compared with mupirocin. ♦ Methods: This retrospective, pre-test/post-test observational study included all incident PD patients at Singapore General Hospital from 2012 to 2015. Patients received daily topical exit-site application of either mupirocin (2012 - 2013) or chlorhexidine (2014 - 2015) in addition to routine exit-site cleaning with 10% povidone-iodine. The primary outcome was ESI rate during the 2 time periods. Secondary outcomes were peritonitis rate, times to first ESI and peritonitis, hospitalization rate, and infection-related catheter removal. Event rates were analyzed using Poisson regression, and infection-free survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression survival analyses. ♦ Results: The study included 162 patients in the mupirocin period (follow-up 141.5 patient-years) and 175 patients in the chlorhexidine period (follow-up 136.9 patient-years). Compared with mupirocin-treated patients, chlorhexidine-treated patients experienced more frequent ESIs (0.22 vs 0.12 episodes/patient-year, p = 0.048), although this was no longer statistically significant following multivariable analysis (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98 - 3.26, p = 0.06). No significant differences were observed between the 2 groups with respect to time to first ESI (p = 0.10), peritonitis rate (p = 0.95), time to first peritonitis (p = 0.60), hospitalization rate (p = 0.21) or catheter removal rate (0.03 vs 0.04/patient-year, p = 0.56). ♦ Conclusions: Topical exit-site application of chlorhexidine cream was associated with a borderline significant, higher rate of ESI in incident PD patients compared with mupirocin cream.
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Of the 170 isolates examined, 86 (51%) were confirmed as MRSA (i.e. 49% were misidentified as MRSA). Fifteen (17%) of the confirmed MRSA strains exhibited inducible clindamycin resistance. Of the 86 confirmed MRSA isolates, 13 (15%) were resistant to mupirocin, 53 (62%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 41 (48%) were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and none were resistant to linezolid. Although disc-diffusion testing indicated that 23 (27%) of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin, none of the isolates were vancomycin-resistant by Van-E-test.
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A total of 1200 Staphylococcus aureus and 2760 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), consecutively collected from four Greek hospitals located in different geographical areas, were tested for susceptibility to mupirocin using the Etest and a reference agar dilution method.
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Swabs were taken from catheter exit site, nares, axillae and groin in 147 chronic peritoneal dialysis out-patients between November 2003 and January 2004. Axillae/groin and nasal samples were pooled and cultured in the same medium, whereas exit site swabs were cultured separately. All SA isolated were tested for methicillin and mupirocin resistance using oxacillin screening plates and E-test strips.
After an initial 5-day course of nasal mupirocin ointment for all patients, 17 patients continued to apply a 5-day course of nasal mupirocin every month for 1 year, and the other 17 patients applied a placebo ointment. Nasal cultures were obtained monthly, and all episodes of skin infection were recorded.
MRSA infection rate decreased from 3.58 (baseline) to 0.42‰ (intervention period) (P <0.05), re-surged to 2.21‰ (interruption period) and decreased to 0.18‰ (re-introduction of intervention period) (P <0.05). Patients admitted to the surgical ICU during the intervention periods had a lower in-hospital mortality (13.5% (155 out of 1,147) versus 16.6% (203 out of 1,226), P = 0.038). After adjusting for effects of confounding variables, the active screening and decolonization program was independently associated with a decrease in in-hospital MRSA infections (adjusted odds ratio: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.8) and 90-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.7 to 0.99). Cost analysis showed that $22 medical costs can be saved for every $1 spent on the intervention.
The prevalence of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus colonization in a random sample of patients seeking care in Emergency Department was 29.5% and 13.5%, respectively. A substantial fraction of the S. aureus-colonized patients were co-colonized with CoNS and high-level mupirocin-resistant CoNS. Determining the molecular genotype of S. aureus during intake screening may prove valuable in the future if certain molecular genotypes become associated with increased infection risk.
The overall incidence of HR-Mup among MRSA carriers during the studied period was 4.84% (8/165); however, the incidence decreased from 13.04% (6/46) in the first year to 3.5% (2/57) in the second year and was 0% in the last year (P = .02). LR-Mup, in contrast, increased significantly (P = .01).
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A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine whether repeated nasal application of mupirocin ointment would decrease the odds of S. aureus nasal colonization in 100 HELP/PSI patients over an 8-month period. A 5-day course of study drug was given monthly, and colonization was assessed at baseline and 1 month after each treatment. S. aureus infection was a secondary outcome.