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To determine whether adding simvastatin as adjuvant to triple regimen in patients with H. pylori infection will improve the eradication rate.
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The study took the form of a cost-effectiveness analysis spanning 2 years. The perspective was societal and the setting, ambulatory care. Subjects were Helicobacter pylori-positive patients with a duodenal ulcer. The triple therapy trials spanned 7, 10 or 14 days and the main outcome measures were cost per patient and marginal cost for additional cured patient calculated for a low cost-of-care setting (Spain), for a high-cost setting (USA), and for two follow-up strategies: (i) systematic 13C-urea breath test after eradication; (ii) clinical follow-up, breath-test if symptoms recurred.
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Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa. Recent studies suggest that S. aureus enterotoxins may play an etiologic role in the development of CRS. Apart from surgery and repeated courses of steroids, macrolide antibiotics have been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects in CRS. Similar effects have been reported for fluoroquinolones on various cell types. Since these effects have poorly been characterized in CRS, we examined anti-inflammatory effects of ciprofloxacin on human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs).
To evaluate the ability of once daily reduced dose clarithromycin to prevent disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (dMAC) infection in patients with advanced HIV disease.
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Korea and Japan show the highest incidence of gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection. New 2013 guidelines on H. pylori infection differ between the two countries with regard to the indications for H. pylori eradication, diagnostic methods, and treatment regimens. Indications for eradication in Korean guideline focus on specific diseases such as peptic ulcer disease, low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and after resection of early gastric cancer, while Japanese guideline includes all H. pylori-associated gastritis for the prevention of dissemination. With regard to the diagnosis, either noninvasive or invasive method (except for bacterial culture) is recommended in Korea, while two noninvasive tests including serum anti-H. pylori IgG antibody level are preferred in Japan. As for the treatment regimens, second-line treatment (quadruple bismuth-containing regimen) is recommended without first-line triple therapy in areas of high clarithromycin resistance in Korea. However, there is no bismuth-based second-line treatment in Japan, and the Japanese regimen consists of a lower dose of antibiotics for a shorter duration (7 days). Such discrepancies between the two countries are based not only on the differences in the literature search and interpretation, but also on the different approvals granted by the national health insurance system, manufacturing process of the antibiotics, and diagnostic techniques in each country. Collaborations are required to minimize the discrepancies between the two countries based on cost-effectiveness.
A case of fatal pulmonary Mycobacterium abscessus infection in a 56-year-old man is reported. The patient had a longstanding history of seropositive, nodular rheumatoid arthritis with severe joint manifestations that had been treated with a regimen of prednisone, leflunomide, and etanercept. He presented to our facility with complaint of productive cough, persistent fevers, pleuritic chest discomfort, and dyspnea at rest. The patient was admitted to hospital, placed in isolation, a left-sided chest tube was inserted (left pneumothorax identified), and sputum acid-fast bacteria stains and cultures were obtained. Fluorochrome stains demonstrated numerous acid-fast bacteria, and M. abscessus was recovered from the culture media. He was treated with a regimen of amikacin, cefoxitin, and clarithromycin. He initially responded well, and was discharged home with this regimen. He remained afebrile with decreased cough and sputum production until 15 days after discharge when he was again admitted to hospital, with acute onset dyspnea and right-sided chest discomfort (right pneumothorax identified). He ultimately expired, due to overwhelming pulmonary infection, 20 days after readmission to hospital. Autopsy revealed acid fast bacilli in the setting of numerous, bilateral, necrotic, granulomatous, cavitary pulmonary lesions. Based on its mechanism of action, we propose an association between the use of etanercept, a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitor, and this case of fatal pulmonary mycobacterial infection. We recommend that physicians exercise cautious clinical judgment when initiating etanercept therapy in persons with underlying lung disease, especially in communities in which mycobacterial organisms are highly prevalent. We also advise physicians to maintain a high level of vigilance for late onset granulomatous infection in persons using etanercept.
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We report on the case of a 9-month-old Caucasian girl referred to our institution with a history of fever of unknown origin and wheezing, unresponsive to bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory therapy. Subsequent investigation led to a diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). The infected lymph tissue infiltrated and obstructed the right bronchus and significantly compressed the left bronchus to the point of near closure. Given the high degree of morbidity and potential mortality from thoracic surgery in this patient, we treated her with a combination of anti-mycobacterial drugs (rifabutin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clofazimine, amikacin, ethambutol) and glucocorticoids to relieve airway compression. The endobronchial granulation tissue was resected by laser bronchoscopy. This combined approach led to eventual normalization of radiologic and endoscopic findings, and the anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy was discontinued 12 months after the first bronchoalveolar lavage culture was negative for MAI. The patient remains asymptomatic 1 year after completion of this course of therapy. We suggest that mediastinal lymphadenopathy with bronchial infiltration and extrinsic airway compression caused by MAI in otherwise healthy children can be successfully treated with aggressive chemotherapy, glucocorticoids, and laser bronchoscopy.
CD30+ cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders (CLPDs) are usually characterized by a benign clinical course. The prognostic value of cytotoxic markers in these lymphomas has not been evaluated in large series. We describe a case of borderline CD30+ CLPD with cytotoxic phenotype, presenting in a 22-year-old male patient as an ulcer on the forearm. He reported having had similar ulcers on the buttock and thigh that spontaneously regressed over the course of 1 year. The lesion resolved with a single course of clarithromycin; a subsequent lesion, too, responded to clarithromycin, and no recurrences or systemic involvement have been documented in the 9-month follow-up. A conservative approach in the management of CD30+ CLPD is recommended. We believe that the anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of clarithromycin on T cells may have hastened the remission process.
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Clarithromycin has bacteriologic efficacy against M avium infection in late-stage AIDS, although drug resistance eventually develops. Further studies are needed to investigate safe, effective concomitant drugs.
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In vitro studies have demonstrated that formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the effect of bactericidal antibiotics. The formation of ROS is not restricted to bacteria, but also occurs in mammalian cells. Oxidative stress is linked to several diseases. This study investigates whether antibiotic drugs induce oxidative stress in healthy humans as a possible mechanism for adverse reactions to the antibiotic drugs.