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Determination FSH and LH at day 3 of the menstrual cycle predicts the response to stimulation.
Cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) has traditionally been thought to involve the release of granule components, including perforin and granzymes, from the effector cell (EC) onto the target cell (TC) membrane. Recently, a granule-independent cytolytic mechanism involving the interaction of Fas antigen (CD95) with Fas ligand has been described. We have generated antisense perforin (YT-xP1) and granzyme B (YT-xGrB) transfectants of the human NK-like cell line YT-INDY. These transfectants have greatly reduced cytolytic ability when compared to the vector-transfected control cell line (YT-neo). In this study, however, we demonstrate that the antisense transfectants retain the ability to lyse Fas+ TC. Fas-mediated lysis is Ca(2+)-independent and is inhibited by a monoclonal anti-Fas blocking Ab, M3. By RT-PCR, we detect message for FasL in unstimulated YT-xP1 and YT-xGrB transfectants, as well as in unstimulated YT-neo. By flow cytometry, we show that YT-neo, YT-xGrB, and YT-xP1 constitutively express surface FasL. These data indicate that in a human NK-like cell line, similar to the murine system, the granule and Fas pathways of cytotoxicity function independently of one another. At least with the TC tested, our data also indicate that the granule and Fas pathways together account for nearly 100% of the cytolytic ability of YT-INDY.
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Aging is characterized by development of diseases and cancer due to loss of central and peripheral neuroendocrine-immune responses. Free radicals exert deleterious effects on neural-immune functions in the brain, heart, and lymphoid organs and thus, affecting the health. Bacopa monnieri (brahmi), an Ayurvedic herb, and L-deprenyl, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, have been widely used in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brahmi (10 and 40 mg/kg BW) and deprenyl (1 and 2.5 mg/kg BW) treatment of 3-month old female Wistar rats for 10 days can modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] in the brain and spleen. In addition, the effects of these compounds on the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), nerve growth factor (NGF), the intracellular signaling markers, p-ERK1/2, p-CREB, and p-NF-kB, and nitric oxide (NO) production were measured in the spleen by Western blot analysis. Both brahmi and deprenyl enhanced CAT activity, and p-TH, NGF, and p-NF-kB expression in the spleen. However, deprenyl alone was found to enhance the p-ERK1/2 and p-CREB expression in the spleen. The activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in the thymus, mesenteric lymph nodes, heart, and brain areas (frontal cortex, medial basal hypothalamus, striatum, and hippocampus) were differentially altered by brahmi and deprenyl. Brahmi alone enhanced NO production in the spleen. Taken together, these results suggest that both brahmi and deprenyl can protect the central and peripheral neuronal systems through their unique effects on the antioxidant enzyme activities and intracellular signaling pathways.
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Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for FSH, LH and female age. FSH is better than female age in predicting the number of oocytes retrieved (respectively ROCAUC=0.77, p=10-3 versus ROCAUC=0.73, p=10-3) and the number of embryos obtained (ROCAUC=0.69, p=10-3 versus ROCAUC=0.66, p=10-3). LH is non predictive. None of the three tested parameters was predictive of the fertilization and pregnancy rates. An FSH cutoff was calculated and a value of 7.8mUI/ml is associated with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 70% for the prediction of ovarian response to controlled stimulation.
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The results showed that there is no significant difference in the diameter of the cells between the groups but total number of the cells in Group II was statistically significant when compared with the others groups. Student-Newman-Keuls method showed that Group II and Group IV are statistically significant when compared to Group III (p<0.05).
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by deposition of amyloid beta, neurofibrillary tangles, astrogliosis and microgliosis, leading to neuronal dysfunction and loss in the brain. Bio- and histochemical evidence suggests a pivotal role of central and peripheral inflammation in its aetiopathology, linked to the production of free radicals. Numerous epidemiological studies support that the long-term use of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs is preventive against AD, but these medications do not slow down the progression of the disease in already diagnosed patients. There are a number of studies focusing on traditional herbal medicines and small molecules (usually plant secondary metabolites) as potential anti-inflammatory drugs, particulary in respect to cytokine suppression. For instance, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and a number of polyphenolic phytochemicals have been shown to be effective against inflammation in animal and cell models. Some of these plant secondary metabolites have also been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-amyloidogenic, neuroprotective, and cognition-enhancing effects. This review will provide an overview the effects of catechins/proanthocyanidins from green tea, curcumin from turmeric, extracts enriched in bacosides from Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), flavone glycosides from Ginkgo biloba, and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. They do not only counteract one pathophysiological aspect of AD in numerous in vitro and in vivo studies of models of AD, but also ameliorate several of the above mentioned pathologies. The evidence suggests that increased consumption of these compounds might lead to a safe strategy to delay the onset of AD. The continuing investigation of the potential of these substances is necessary as they are promising to yield a possible remedy for this pervasive disease.
Bacopa monnieri has a long history in Ayurvedic medicine for neurological and behavioral defects. To assess its efficacy in improving cognitive function.
There is wide variability in the percent of women having correct knowledge on what to do when pills are missed after exposure to written missed pills instructions, with more women knowing what to do after missing 1 pill than after missing 2 or 3 pills. Women have difficulty understanding missed pill instructions contained in patient package inserts. Providing written brochures with information on missed pill instructions in addition to contraceptive counseling may improve knowledge of how to manage missed pills. Graphic-based missed pill instructions and those containing less information may result in improved comprehension. Even with clear instructions, many women missing pills may choose not to follow the recommended actions.