Using 2 national pharmaceutical market research reports published by IMS HEALTH, alpha-blocker prescription orders reported in the National Prescription Audit-a random computerized sample of about 20 000 of 29 000 retail, independent, and mail order pharmacies and mass merchandise and discount houses--and office-based physician alpha-blocker prescribing patterns reported in the National Disease and Therapeutic Index--a random stratified sample of about 3500 physician offices--were tracked.
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We conducted an in vitro study of drug influences on adrenaline and collagen-induced mobilization of platelet calcium.
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The ALLHAT publications had large effects on the antihypertensive prescribing patterns in our population. Prescription of thiazide-type diuretics significantly increased after the ALLHAT publication. Our findings establish that the response of physicians to new clinical evidence can be very rapid.
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Compared to doxazosin alone, combination therapy was more expensive but more effective. Cost-utility ratios ranged from 27,823 dollars/QALY for patients with PSA > 3.2 ng/ml to 34,085 dollars/QALY for all patients. Finasteride, although dominated by doxazosin, may be cost-effective compared to watchful waiting in patients who fail doxazosin and do not choose to proceed to surgery. Compared to watchful waiting, cost-utility ratios for finasteride ranged from 35016 dollars/QALY for patients with PSA > 3.2 ng/ml to 44,336 dollars/QALY for all patients. Results were robust across a wide range of sensitivity analyses.
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Doxazosin is an α(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist for the treatment of high blood pressure and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Peripheral α-adrenergic receptors have been implicated in inflammation.
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Physiologic reactivity to a standardized laboratory stressor is associated with objective and subjective BPH disease parameters. These findings contribute to growing data suggesting that stress conditions could be associated with the development or aggravation of prostatic disease.
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A total of 15 systematic reviews involving five α(1) blockers met the inclusion criteria. Direct evidence demonstrated that α(1) blockers were superior to placebo in reducing urinary symptom scores and improving peak urinary flow PUF. Doxazosin could significantly reduce urinary symptom scores compared with tamsulosin mean difference (MD -1.60, 95% CI -1.80 to -1.40) and alfuzosin (MD1.7, 95% CI 0.76-1.64). Indirect evidence suggested that the urinary symptom score and PUF at endpoint in men treated with naftopidil were similar to those treated with other α(1) blockers. α(1) Blockers generally lead to more adverse effects compared with placebo, and those caused by terazosin were more frequent than others.
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Although doxazosin and enalapril are potent antihypertensive drugs, the effects on plasma lipid obtained with doxazosin indicate that a reduction in cardiovascular risk was achieved with this drug in the patients included in this study.
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The antihypertensive doxazosin works to decrease perivascular muscular tone, causing vasodilatation and hence a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance. To prevent the sharp decrease in blood pressure (BP), syncope, and other postural effects that may occur at the beginning of therapy with this drug, the dose must be adjusted. A new formulation, doxazosin gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS), allows slow release of the active agent so therapeutic serum levels are reached within 24 hours, rendering dose adjustment unnecessary and eliminating any first-dose effects.
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Six patients were treated with 4 mg doxazosin/d (group A), 9 patients with 8 mg doxazosin/d (group B), and 15 with placebo. Baseline values for the cardiac index on day 1, day 2, and after 12 weeks failed to disclose significant differences between patient groups and between the days of study. On day 1, the increase in cardiac index compared with baseline was significantly higher in group A than in the placebo group (P=0.004) and group B (P=0.001). On day 2, the increase in cardiac index compared with baseline on day 1 was significantly higher in group A than in group B (P=0.003) (with reference to alpha/3=0.0167 according to Bonferroni). This was no longer observed after 12 weeks. In the placebo group, following significant changes occurred in baseline values, heart rate was lower (P=0.023) and stroke volume index was higher after 12 weeks in comparison to day 1 (P=0.032).