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Variation in proliferation rate, cell cycle, and apoptosis after erlotinib and carnertinib treatments will be evaluated in vitro. In vivo experiments were performed using two models of CRPC, 22rv1 (AR expressing), and PC3 (AR negative) cell lines grown in nude mice. Intact nude mice bearing 22rv1 cells also received bicalutamide (BCLT) in combination with anti-target agents.
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Retention of androgen receptor (AR) signalling in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) highlights the requirement for the development of more effective AR targeting therapies. A key mechanism of resistance to anti-androgens is through expression of constitutively active AR variants (AR-Vs) that are refractory to next-generation therapies, including Enzalutamide and Abiraterone. By maintaining an androgenic gene signature, AR-Vs drive tumour survival and progression in castrate conditions. Critically, however, our understanding of the mechanics of AR-V-driven transcription is limited, particularly with respect to dependency on pioneer factor function. Here we show that depletion of FOXA1 in the CWR22Rv1 CRPC cell line abrogates the oncogenic potential of AR-Vs. Gene expression profiling reveals that approximately 41% of the AR-V transcriptome requires FOXA1 and that depletion of FOXA1 attenuates AR-V binding at a sub-set of analysed co-regulated genes. Interestingly, AR-V levels are elevated in cells depleted of FOXA1 as a consequence of attenuated negative feedback on the AR gene, but is insufficient to maintain cell growth as evidenced by marked anti-proliferative effects in FOXA1 knockdown cells. In all, our data suggests that AR-Vs are dependent on FOXA1 for sustaining a pro-proliferative gene signature and agents targeting FOXA1 may represent novel therapeutic options for CRPC patients.
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Luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) responses were monitored in 3 groups. Group 1 comprised 7 patients treated with histrelin implant, which is inserted into the arm of the patient while under local anesthesia, and suppresses LH and testosterone. Following implant removal antiandrogens (flutamide or bicalutamide) were administered. Group 2 comprised 8 patients treated with long-term depot GnRH super agonists which were later withheld and patients were given bicalutamide. Group 3 consisted of 7 patients treated with bicalutamide.
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We reviewed 30 patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer who received maximal androgen blockade with addition of an antiandrogen (delayed maximal androgen blockade) (bicalutamide 80 mg daily for 21 patients and flutamide 375 mg daily for 9 patients) as the second-line treatment. The patients were divided into two groups by serum testosterone before delayed maximal androgen blockade: 22 in the testosterone ≥ 5 ng/dl group and 8 in the testosterone <5 ng/dl group. A prostate-specific antigen response was defined as a prostate-specific antigen decline of ≥ 50% from the pre-treatment level.
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Although treatment options for men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer have improved in recent years, the outlook for patients remains poor, with overall survival in the region of 2 years. Response rates with chemotherapy are modest and disease progression is usually observed within months of stopping treatment.
The effect of the steroidal androgen receptor antagonist Win 49,596 on the prostate and testis was studied in beagle dogs and was compared to the effects of the nonsteroidal androgen receptor antagonist ICI 176,334 and the steroidal 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor MK-906. Win 49,596 was shown to bind to the androgen receptor from normal canine prostate with a Ki of 2.2 microM. After 16 weeks of treatment, prostate size, as estimated by transrectal ultrasonography, was unchanged in intact controls and was 26% of the initial size in castrate controls. Oral doses of Win 49,596 from 0.625-40 mg/kg.day for 16 weeks caused dose-dependent prostatic regression and a dose-related increase in both the incidence and severity of glandular atrophy of the prostate. Prostatic secretory function was also inhibited by Win 49,596 treatment. The effects of Win 49,596 at 40 mg/kg.day on prostatic weight, total DNA, histomorphology, and secretory function were similar to those of castration, while the effects of Win 49,596 at 10 mg/kg.day were similar to those of ICI 176,334 at 0.25 mg/kg.day and MK-906 at 1.0 mg/kg.day. No effects on testicular weight, daily sperm production, or spermatogenesis were observed; however, mild Leydig cell hyperplasia was observed in two dogs treated with 40 mg/kg.day Win 49,596. In addition, at 10 and 40 mg/kg.day Win 49,596, moderate but variable increases in serum testosterone levels were observed. In summary, Win 49,596 caused regression of the hypertrophic canine prostate without effects on spermatogenesis and/or sexual function, supporting its possible use in the treatment of human benign prostatic hypertrophy/hyperplasia.
Peritoneal carcinomatosis is a rare finding in metastatic prostate cancer. In the literature peritoneal carcinomatosis is usually reported in its final stages with multiple metastases. A single peritoneal carcinomatosis with no further metastases is a very rare finding.
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Finasteride is known to inhibit Type 2 5α-reductase and thus block the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The structural similarity of finasteride to DHT raises the possibility that finasteride may also interfere with the function of the androgen receptor (AR). Experiments were carried out to evaluate the antiandrogenic effect of finasteride in LNCaP, C4-2 and VCaP human prostate cancer cells. Finasteride decreased DHT binding to AR, and DHT-stimulated AR activity and cell growth in LNCaP and C4-2 cells, but not in VCaP cells. LNCaP and C4-2 (derived from castration-resistant LNCaP) cells express the T877A mutant AR, while VCaP cells express the wild type AR. When PC-3 cells, which are AR-null, were transfected with either the wild type or the T877A mutant AR, only the mutant AR-expressing cells were sensitive to finasteride inhibition of DHT binding. Peroxiredoxin-1 (Prx1) is a novel endogenous facilitator of AR binding to DHT. In Prx1-rich LNCaP cells, the combination of Prx1 knockdown and finasteride was found to produce a greater inhibitory effect on AR activity and cell growth than either treatment alone. The observation suggests that cells with a low expression of Prx1 are likely to be more responsive to the antiandrogenic effect of finasteride. Additional studies showed that the efficacy of finasteride was comparable to that of bicalutamide (a widely used non-steroidal antiandrogen). The implication of the above findings is discussed in the context of developing strategies to improve the outcome of androgen deprivation therapy.