casodex 40 mg
Clinical data and models of human disease indicate that androgen receptor (AR) activity is essential for prostate cancer development, growth, and progression. The dependence of prostatic adenocarcinoma on AR signaling at all stages of disease has thereby been exploited in the treatment of disseminated tumors, for which ablation of AR function is the goal of first-line therapy. Although these strategies are initially effective, recurrent tumors arise with restored AR activity, and no durable treatment has yet been identified to combat this stage of disease. New insights into AR regulation and the mechanisms underlying resurgent AR activity have provided fertile ground for the development of novel strategies to more effectively inhibit receptor activity and prolong the transition to therapeutic failure.
casodex cost uk
Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice were treated orally with 50-400 mg/kg of the antiandrogens 3 and 7 weeks post-infection. In addition, three drug combinations of nilutamide and praziquantel (200/100, 100/100 and 100/50 mg/kg) were administered to mice harbouring adult S. mansoni. Drug effects were also monitored in vitro following exposure to antiandrogen concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 microg/mL.
casodex drug information
The recent emergence of new hormonal or chemotherapeutic drugs has resulted in a paradigm shift in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer(CRPC). Enzalutamide is a rationally designed, orally administered androgen receptor(AR)inhibitor. It inhibits multiple points in the androgen receptor signalling pathway, which is considered an important driver of CRPC, including the inhibition of androgen binding to the AR, nuclear translocation of the AR complex, and binding of the AR complex to deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA). Unlike other anti-androgens(such as bicalutamide), enzalutamide does not act as a partial AR agonist. The first in human phase I/II trial was conducted in the United States in both chemotherapy-naïve patients and postchemotherapy patients with progressive metastatic CRPC(mCRPC). The results showed encouraging antitumor activity of enzalutamide by considering all outcomes assessed in the trial. The first reported phase III trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational study involving 1,199 patients with mCRPC that progressed even after docetaxel therapy(AFFIRM trial). Enzalutamide was associated with significant benefits over the placebo considering time-to-event outcomes(i.e. prolonged overall survival[OS], delayed time to prostatic specific antigen[PSA]progression[TTPP], prolonged radiographic progression free survival[rPFS], time to the first skeletal related event[SRE])as well as objective response outcomes(i.e. PSA, soft tissue, and quality of life[QOL]). On the basis of the AFFIRM results, Astellas and Medivation filed a new drug application with the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency in 2012, and obtained their approval. Another phaseI/II enzalutamide trial was conducted in both chemotherapy-naïve patients and post-chemotherapy pa- tients with progressive mCRPC. Enzalutamide at a dose of 160mg/day was well tolerated, and it showed pharmacokinetic characteristics, adverse events, and anti-tumor activity profiles similar to that of the non-Japanese population. On the basis of the results of the studies summarized above, a new drug application was submitted to the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan in May 2013 and obtained the approval in Mar 2014. The second phase III trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational study of 1,717 chemotherapy- naïve patients with CRPC(PREVAIL trial). An interim analysis recently demonstrated the significant benefits of enzalutamide over the placebo considering both OS and rPFS. In light of these results, the Independent Data Monitoring Committee (IDMC)advised terminating the study early, and suggested treating the patients in the placebo group with enzalutamide. This paper reviews the developmental history of enzalutamide, its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics, as well as available efficacy and tolerability data yielded in clinical trials of patients with CRPC.
casodex high dose
A total of 23 patients (arm A, 10; arm B, 13) were accrued. The main grade 3+ toxicities were hypertension, fatigue, decreased lymphocytes, and increased alanine transaminase. Owing to significant toxicity, the protocol was amended after the first 11 patients and the pazopanib starting dose was reduced to 600 mg daily. In arm A, of 9 evaluable patients, there was 1 patient (11%) with a PSA response, 3 (33%) with stable PSA, and 5 (56%) with PSA progression; in arm B, of 12 evaluable patients, there were 2 patients (17%) with PSA responses, 6 (50%) with stable PSA, and 4 (33%) with PSA progression. Median progression-free survival was similar in both arms at 7.3 months (95% CI, 2.5 months to not reached). Long-term stable disease was seen in 4 patients who remained on treatment for 18 months (arm A), 26 months (arm A), 35 months (arm B), and 52 months (arm B).
casodex generic cost
Twenty patients were examined, each with five multi-parameter magnetic resonance imaging scans: two scans before the commencement of androgen suppression, one scan after 1 month of hormone treatment, and two further scans after 3 months of therapy. Quantitative parametric maps of the prostate informing on relative blood flow (rBF), relative blood volume (rBV), vascular permeability (transfer constant [K(trans)]), leakage space (v(e)) and blood oxygenation (intrinsic relaxivity [R(2)∗]) were calculated.
casodex 50 mg
Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) antagonists work by directly inhibiting LHRH without any initial stimulation of the LHRH receptor. The physiologic response is a direct and rapid decrease in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testosterone without any flare. Although there has been extensive basic-science work on these medications, practical shortcomings have limited clinical studies in prostate cancer. Many of these compounds induce significant histamine-mediated side effects, and until recently, no depot form existed. In 2 recent phase-3 studies comparing abarelix depot with leuprolide and with leuprolide plus bicalutamide, abarelix lowered serum testosterone more quickly. None of the 89 patients on leuprolide alone were castrate on day 8 as opposed to 72% of the 180 patients randomized to abarelix (P <0.001). Similarly, none of the combination group were castrate by day 8, whereas 68% of the abarelix patients were castrate (P <0.001). In addition, 82% of the patients treated with leuprolide and 86% of those given leuprolide/bicalutamide had testosterone surge, whereas none of the abarelix patients did (P <0.001 for both studies). Both phase 2 and phase 3 data show abarelix to be well tolerated. In conclusion, LHRH antagonists offer the physiologic response of orchiectomy without surgery. These medications are well tolerated and a depot form now exists. The expansion of indications for androgen deprivation, such as downsizing or intermittent therapy, could provide many opportunities for their use. Despite these encouraging advances, however, their routine use for advanced prostate cancer may depend on demonstration of a survival advantage in avoiding flare.
A simple, sensitive and rapid LC/MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of lansoprazole in human plasma. After a simple sample preparation procedure by one-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile, lansoprazole and the internal standard bicalutamide were chromatographed on a Zorbax SB-C(18) (3.0 mm x 150 mm, 3.5 microm, Agilent) column with the mobile phase consisted of methanol-water (70:30, v/v, containing 5 mM ammonium formate, pH was adjusted to 7.85 by 1% ammonia solution). Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via negative eletrospray ionization source (ESI(-)). The lower limit of quantification was 5.5 ng/mL, and the assay exhibited a linear range of 5.5-2200.0 ng/mL. The validated method was successfully applied to investigate the bioequivalence between two kinds of preparation (test vs. reference product) in twenty-eight healthy male Chinese volunteers.
casodex generic brand
Mechanisms of prostate cancer (CaP) recurrence during a combined androgen blockade (CAB) are poorly understood. Previously, the role of androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations underlying the CAB therapy relapse has been raised. To investigate the hypothesis that AR gene aberrations are involved in CAB relapse, 11 locally recurrent CaP samples from patients treated with orchiectomy and bicalutamide were analyzed for copy number changes and DNA sequence alterations of the AR gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization and single-strand conformation polymorphism, respectively. Altogether, base changes were detected in four tumors (36%). Three of them were missense mutations (G166S, W741C, M749I) and two were silent polymorphisms. Interestingly, none of the tumors had AR amplification. These data suggest that different AR variants are developed and selected for during various types of hormonal treatments, and also, that CAB achieved by orchiectomy and bicalutamide does not act as a selective force for AR amplification.
Androgen-independent prostate cancer is a lethal form of the disease that is marked by metastasis and rapid proliferation in its final stages. As no effective therapy for this aggressive tumor currently exists, it is imperative to elucidate and target the mechanisms involved in the progression to androgen independence. Accumulating evidence indicates that aberrant activation of androgen receptor (AR) via signal transduction pathways, AR gene mutation and/or amplification, and/or coregulator alterations may contribute to the progression of prostate cancer. In the present study, the effects of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling and its downstream factors on AR activity at the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene were tested. Activation of PKA by forskolin resulted in enhanced androgen-induced expression of the PSA gene, an effect that was blocked by the AR antagonist, bicalutamide. Interestingly, when either p300 or CBP was overexpressed, PKA activation was sufficient to stimulate PSA promoter-driven transcription in the absence of androgen, which was not inhibited by bicalutamide. PKA activation did not significantly alter AR protein levels but significantly increased the phosphorylated form of its downstream effector, cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the presence of androgen. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that the combination of androgen and forskolin increased phosphorylated CREB occupancy, which was accompanied by histone acetylation, at the putative cAMP responsive element located in the 5' upstream regulatory region of the PSA gene. Remarkably, mammalian two-hybrid assay indicated that p300/CBP may bridge the interaction between AR and CREB, suggesting a novel enhanceosomal cooperation. These results demonstrate an intriguing interplay between a signal transduction pathway, coactivator overexpression and AR signaling as a possible combined mechanism of progression to androgen-independent prostate cancer.