Total costs, PMPM costs, and switches among SSRIs.
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Typically, studies measure symptoms immediately after the initiation of drug treatment and then at a sequence of later time points. In this study, we develop a statistical mixture model for analyzing such longitudinal data. Our method estimates the onset of drug effect and assesses the association between the probability distribution of the onset times and possible contributing factors. Our mixture model treats the timing of onset as missing for each individual but restricts it, for simplicity, to two possible onset points, early or late. To estimate the model, we use an expectation-maximization-based approach and provide the general formulas of the variance and covariance matrix for the estimated parameters.
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Many drug names can look or sound like other drug names, which leads to confusion and potentially harmful medication errors. While various types of drug names exist, brand (proprietary) names are most commonly confused. Examples of the numerous drug names that have been confused because they look and/or sound similar include Celebrex (celecoxib), Cerebyx (fosphenytoin), and Celexa (citalopram). Factors such as poor handwriting and clinical similarity may exacerbate the problem. This problem can be alleviated through actions by regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical manufacturers, healthcare professionals, and patients. To address the problem, significant changes in the pharmaceutical regulatory process have occurred in the US and Europe.
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Deconstruction of court documents revealed that protocol-specified outcome measures showed no statistically significant difference between citalopram and placebo. However, the published article concluded that citalopram was safe and significantly more efficacious than placebo for children and adolescents, with possible adverse effects on patient safety.
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Diseases and symptoms dominate UpToDate searches. Some searches result in page views of only short duration, while others consistently result in longer-than-average page views. The response to an FDA alert for Celexa, characterized by a change in UpToDate search activity, differed considerably from general online media activity. Changes in search activity appeared later and persisted longer in UpToDate logs. The volume of searches and page view durations related to Celexa before the alert also differed from those after the alert.
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In the central nervous system (CNS) and in the periphery, specific proteins (transporters) are responsible for the regulation of the synaptic concentrations of the major monoamine neurotransmitters, noradrenaline (NE), serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA). Several reports have shown that the expression of these transporters within the CNS may be altered in patients with certain neurodegenerative or neuropsychiatric disorders. Therefore, in the CNS the monoamine transporters are major targets for existing and developmental drugs. The best known drugs targeting these transporters are the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (e.g. citalopram, Celexa) that are most frequently used in the treatment of clinical depression. Selective NE reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) have also found use for the treatment of depression and other conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) disorder. Given that the NE transporter (NET) is also a binding site for cocaine and drugs of abuse, there is a great need for a probe to assess the densities of NET in vivo by brain imaging with either positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission tomography (SPET). PET in particular has the potential to measure NET densities quantitatively and with high resolution in the human brain in vivo. The quality of a PET image depends crucially on the radioligand used in the emission measurement. Commonly used radionuclides in PET radioligands are carbon 11 (t(1/2) = 20.4 min) and fluorine-18 (t(1/2) = 109.8 min). This review specifically summarizes the present status of the development of (11)C- or (18)F-labeled ligands as tools for imaging NET in brain with PET in support of neuropsychiatric clinical research and drug development.
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are neurologically active drugs that can contaminate surface waters and have the potential to negatively affect aquatic organisms. In this investigation, the 48-h acute toxicity of mixtures (binary and quaternary) of four common SSRIs (fluoxetine [Prozac], sertraline [Zoloft], paroxetine [Paxil], and citalopram [Celexa]) were determined in the daphnid Ceriodaphnia dubia. Logistic regression was used to model mortality data and to investigate the applicability of concentration addition and independent action models to explain observed mortality. The concentrations estimated to induce 50% mortality in 48 h for the individual SSRIs sertraline, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and citalopram were 0.48 to 0.66, 1.23 to 1.84, 2.23 to 3.57, and 10.47 to 14.53 microM, respectively. Concentration addition was a better predictor of mixture effects than independent action and suggested that the tested SSRIs have a similar mechanism of action. Results indicate that environmental hazard assessments should be conservative and consider that acutely toxic effects in aquatic organisms can be additive for each SSRI in a mixture.
Depression is a rapidly growing issue in the United States. There are many drug classes that may be used to treat depression, including the selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) citalopram (Celexa®) and sertraline (Zoloft®), as well as the aminoketone bupropion (Wellbutrin®). However, therapeutic efficacy and treatment success is often variable, requiring changes in dosing regimens or drug selection. Methods for drug quantification can become important tools in the assessment of drug efficacy to optimize treatment regimens. Here, we present a turbulent flow-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (TFC-MS/MS) method for the robust, simultaneous quantification of citalopram, sertraline, bupropion and its active metabolite, hydroxybupropion (OH-bupropion).
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In this article, we explore the accelerated penetration of generic antidepressants in the United States market following the availability of generic citalopram and sertraline. Analysis suggests that overall, generic penetration into the antidepressant market has grown from approximately 41 percent in January 2004 to over 73 percent in January 2010. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.
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The prognosis for SSRI ingestion in this population of cats was excellent. Decontamination and supportive care for at least 12-24 hours can be considered in cats with SSRI ingestion, particularly venlafaxine to monitor resolution of clinical signs.
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Thirty-three witnessed cat SSRI ingestions.