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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become increasingly prevalent worldwide since it was first reported in a British hospital. The prevalence however, varies markedly in hospitals in the same country, and from one country to another. We therefore sought to document comprehensively the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MRSA isolates in Trinidad and Tobago.
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One patient sustained mild corneal epithelial damage in both eyes and eyelid burn, which were treated conservatively. The other, injured in the same event, had symblepharon and moderate keratopathy requiring intensive lysis.
People of northern Pakistan face health hazards because of poor sanitation practices. Bacterial gastrointestinal infections are very common, and sometimes outbreaks occur. The present study was aimed at evaluating and analyzing infestation of Shigella spp. in patients with suspected gastroenteritis and ascertaining the status of antibiotic therapy. Five hundred and eighty-five faecal samples of patients with suspected gastroenteritis, referred to the District Headquarter Hospital Gilgit, were investigated for common enteropathogenic bacteria from July 1997 to September 1999. Seventy-seven (13.2%) of the faecal specimens were infected with different strains of Shigella spp., 61% of which were Shigella dysenteriae, 15.6% were S. flexneri, and 23.4% were Shigella sp. All Shigella strains were sensitive to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and enoxacin. Sixty-one percent of the strains were resistant to both ampicillin and chloramphenicol, and 3.9% to ampicillin and nalidixic acid, while 10.4% were resistant to ampicillin alone and 14.3% to chloramphenicol only. Only 10.4% of the strains were sensitive to all the antibiotics tested. Sixty strains of Shigella spp. were processed for isolation of plasmids, and 58 (97%) of these antibiotic-resistant bacteria harboured at least one plasmid. The number of plasmids varied from 1 to 9. Escherichia coli C600 were transformed with the isolated plasmids. Transformants, containing 23-kb plasmid, resisted growth in media containing antibiotics, thereby indicating that antibiotic resistance is plasmid-borne. Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that the infestation of Shigella spp. is high in northern Pakistan, the aetiological agents are highly resistant to chloramphenicol and ampicillin, and the antibiotic resistance is mediated by the 23-kb plasmid.
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This study was carried out in the department of biological sciences Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad during 1998--2000. A total of nineteen quinolone sensitive isolates of S. enteritidis from poultry meat and eggs collected during 1994--1998 were characterized. The isolates were serotyped and phage typed at federal institute of consumer Health and Veterinary Medicine, Wernigerode Germany. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed in accordance to the method of Bauer et al. (1966).
Based on the genomic information of Corynebacterium, we identified target proteins which were the highest expression level of one copy of 27 known proteins from our earlier study. Based on the upstream sequence of the coding gene sequences, we amplified two promoters, named P-tkt and P-fum. The tac promoter of recombinant pDXW-8-cat and pDXW-8-gfp were replaced by the new promoters, and the recombinant plasmids were transformed into E. coli JM109 and C. crenatum SYPA5-5 respectively. At different dissolved oxygen level, we compared the function of promoters by the expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and green fluorescent protein (GFP).
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Differences between S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, in terms of evolution of resistance to first-line agents and to quinolones, are evident in this population. The rapid increase in quinolone resistance in S. Paratyphi A when compared to S. Typhi is concerning and requires further study.
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A novel extraction approach was developed based on rotating-disk sorptive extraction (RDSE). In this approach the rotating-disk extraction device consists of a Teflon disk, with a cavity that is loaded with a commercial sorbent phase selected according to the polarity of the analyte. To avoid leakage of the sorbent, the cavity is covered with a fiberglass filter and sealed with a Teflon ring. The proposed novel analytical RDSE technique was used in this study to determine florfenicol levels in plasma as a model analyte, or sample system, to describe the pharmacokinetics of a veterinary formulation. The sorbent used for this application was the copolymer of divinylbenzene and N-vinylpyrrolidone (Oasis HLB), which was selected because the florfenicol molecule contains both hydrophilic and lipophilic moieties. After the extraction, final determination of the analyte was performed by HPLC-DAD. Calibration plots and other analytical features were obtained after 90 min of extraction. The calibration plot was linear over the interval 0.4-16 μg mL(-1) (n = 6), with R (2) = 0.9999. Recovery and repeatability were determined using a blank plasma sample spiked with 4.8 μg mL(-1) florfenicol. A recovery of 91.5 %, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 8.8 %, was obtained when the extraction was evaluated using six different rotating-disk devices. Precision was also assessed, using the same disk (containing the same sorbent phase) for eight aliquots of the same sample. The RSD under these conditions was 10.2 %, clearly indicating that the sorptive phase could possibly be re-used. Accordingly, RDSE is a suitable sample preparation alternative to liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), and stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE).
Study was carried out in Benin City, Nigeria. Thirty-five parents aged 38-54 years with a mean age of 43(±2) years were recruited. Twenty six were females and nine males. Ten eye care practitioners aged 30-45 years with a mean age of 40 (±2) were included. Seven were males and three were females. Data was analyzed qualitatively and in percentages.
Antibiotic resistance has grown steadily in Vibrio cholerae over the last few decades to become a major threat in countries affected by cholera. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) spreads among clinical and environmental V. cholerae strains by lateral gene transfer often mediated by integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family. However, in a few reported but seemingly isolated cases, MDR in V. cholerae was shown to be associated with other self-transmissible genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids. IncA/C conjugative plasmids are often found associated with MDR in isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. To date, IncA/C plasmids have not been commonly found in V. cholerae or other species of Vibrio. Here we present a detailed analysis of pVCR94ΔX derived from pVCR94, a novel IncA/C conjugative plasmid identified in a V. cholerae clinical strain isolated during the 1994 Rwandan cholera outbreak. pVCR94 was found to confer resistance to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol and to transfer at very high frequency. Sequence analysis revealed its mosaic nature as well as high similarity of the core genes responsible for transfer and maintenance with other IncA/C plasmids and ICEs of the SXT/R391 family. Although IncA/C plasmids are considered a major threat in antibiotics resistance, their basic biology has received little attention, mostly because of the difficulty to genetically manipulate these MDR conferring elements. Therefore, we developed a convenient derivative from pVCR94, pVCR94Δ X, a 120.5-kb conjugative plasmid which only codes for sulfamethoxazole resistance. Using pVCR94Δ X, we identified the origin of transfer (oriT) and discovered an essential gene for transfer, both located within the shared backbone, allowing for an annotation update of all IncA/C plasmids. pVCR94Δ X may be a useful model that will provide new insights on the basic biology of IncA/C conjugative plasmids.
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Contaminated irrigation water may greatly affect not only the quality of produce but also the people exposed to it. In this study, agricultural irrigation waters in Bulacan, Philippines were assessed and found to be contaminated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) ranging from 0.58 to 4.51 log10 CFU/mL. A total of 79 isolates of E. coli were confirmed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the uidA gene and were tested for phenotypic resistance using 10 antimicrobials through the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Forty-six isolates (58.22%) were noted to be multidrug resistant (MDR) with high resistance rate to cephalothin, tetracycline, streptomycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, and chloramphenicol. Moreover, this study also examined the prevalence of Class I and II integrons accounting to 67.39% and 17.39%, respectively, of the MDR E. coli strains using multiplex PCR. The results imply that the agricultural water used in Bulacan is contaminated with the fecal material of man or other animals present in the area, and the presence of MDR bacteria, which pose a potential threat to individuals in these areas, is alarming. In addition, detection of integrons could be a good marker for the identification of MDR isolates. Lastly, this study could develop strategies for the proper management of farming sites leading to the detection of food-borne pathogens and prevention of infectious diseases.
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In Nigeria, there is a need for public enlightenment and health education about the possible drawbacks of this practice.