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The in vitro activities of 10 antimicrobial agents against 159 bacterial vaginosis-associated anaerobic isolates from pregnant Japanese and Thai women were determined. Clindamycin, imipenem, cefmetazole, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and metronidazole were highly active against all anaerobic isolates except Prevotella bivia and Mobiluncus species, which were resistant to amoxicillin and metronidazole, respectively. Cefotiam, ceftazidime, and ofloxacin were variably effective, while cefaclor was the least effective agent.
There have been fewer reports on Chlamydia pneumoniae infection during childhood than those in adults, although many of the C. pneumoniae infections occurred during childhood based on prevalence of the antibody. And there have been no reports concerning the double infection of C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae. We reported three cases of children with the double infection. We diagnosed this from significant alteration of these antibodies from the acute to convalescent phases. We omitted the cases without significant alteration of the antibodies, even diagnosed from isolation or detection of the antigens in the samples by direct fluorescent antibody. Case 1 was an 8-year-old-boy who was admitted to our hospital because of fever, cough with vomiting and erythema multiforme. The symptoms did not subside after administration of clindamycin but subsided after minocycline. Case 2 was an 1-year-old-boy who was admitted because of fever, cough, rhinorrhea and vomiting. C. pneumoniae organisms were isolated from the pharyngeal swab specimen, the symptoms subsided after administration of clindamycin. Case 3 was a 9-year-old boy who was admitted because of fever and a cough followed by erythema multiforme. The symptoms did not decrease after administration of clindamycin but after minocycline. The characteristic of these cases are a strong cough with vomiting, weak response of acute reactants on the laboratory data, and skin eruption similar with that due to M. mycoplasmae in two of the three cases. We suspect that these double infections may induce the eruption, about which there have been no previous reports.
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Currently, there is no consensus on the most effective approach to managing pitted keratolysis, but a combination of antimicrobial agents and adjunctive measures, such as antiperspirants, seems to demonstrate the most effective approach from the current literature available.
The results show that 602 (68%) of 855 patients were positive for ZCL, of which 83.4% with volcano-shape, 8.8% psoriasiform, 6.6% popular form and 1.2% with other atypical forms of ZCL. The bacteria were isolated from 66.8% of ZCL (70% of volcano-shape, 60% of psoriasiform and 25% of popular form) and 64.7% of non-ZCL lesions. The most common species were Staphylococcus aureus (41.7%) and S. epidermidis (28%) followed by Bacillus sp. Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp., Enterobacter sp. and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin, Cefazolin and Clindamycin were the most effective antibiotics.
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Twenty-six patients and 20 control children were included in the study. Duration of intramuscular antibiotic treatment ranged from 5 months to 13.5 years. Sixty isolates of viridans streptococci species were obtained, with a similar distribution in the two groups. Intermediate resistance to penicillin (MIC 0.25-2 mg/L) was documented in 10 of the 32 isolates (31.2%) in the study group, and high resistance in none, compared to seven of 28 isolates (25%) with intermediate or high resistance in the control group (p=NS). All isolates in the study group and all but one in the control group were susceptible to clindamycin, and all isolates from both groups were susceptible to rifampin. One isolate (3.1%) in the study group and two (7.1%) in the control group were resistant to clarithromycin.
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Group B streptococci are uniformly susceptible to penicillin or ampicillin. Nevertheless, morbidity and mortality in newborn infants infected with group B streptococci is a major clinical problem. Bacteriologic determinants in the outcome of this infection were studied. Streptococcal killing kinetics were studied for ampicillin alone and in combination with gentamicin. In all cases killing was accelerated by the combination. The practice of discontinuing administration of the aminoglycoside antibiotic when group B streptococcal infection is confirmed should be re-evaluated.
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The susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria remains stable in Belgium, except for clindamycin, which shows a continuous decrease in activity. However, for each of the tested antibiotics, at least a few resistant organisms were detected. Consequently, for severe infections involving anaerobic bacteria, it could be advisable to perform microbiological testing instead of relying on known susceptibility profiles. Periodically monitoring background susceptibility remains necessary to guide empirical therapy.
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To compare the efficacy and tolerance with 2% clindamycin vaginal cream versus oral metronidazole for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis.
To identify risk factors for clindamycin resistance in acute hand abscesses caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
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The antimicrobial susceptibility of 106 strains of Campylobacter jejuni/coli recovered from animals and humans was studied using broth microdilution panel. Human and animal strains exhibit similar susceptibility, with the exception of the strains from pigs which are more resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin. Among the hippurate negative strains (C. coli), these strains are also recognizable from those recovered from other hosts.