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Protocol 1: Intrauterine insemination was performed 24 hours after the LH surge was detected in unstimulated cycles. Sperm were prepared by standard sperm washing. Protocol 2: Female partners were stimulated with clomiphene citrate and hCG. Sperm were inseminated 32-34 hours after hCG injection. Sperm preparation was by serum swim-up or density gradient preparation. Protocol 3: Identical to protocol 2, except the insemination was delayed to 38-40 hours after hCG injection.
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Infertility unit of a public hospital.
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Fourteen studies were included in the review. Meta-analysis could be performed with the data of 12 included studies, with a total of 2536 participants. There was no evidence that clomiphene along with gonadotropins for IVF, with or without mid-cycle GnRH antagonist, differed from gonadotropins alone in GnRH agonist protocols in terms of live births (5 RCTs, 1079 women; OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.69 to1.24) or clinical pregnancy (11 RCTs, 1864 women; OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.85 to1.33). This means that for a typical clinic with 23% LBR using a GnRH agonist regimen, switching to clomiphene protocols would be expected to result in LBRs between 16% and 26%. There was a significant reduction in the incidence of OHSS (5 RCTs, 1559 women; OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.52). This means that for a typical clinic with 3.5% prevalence of OHSS using a GnRH agonist regimen, switching to clomiphene citrate protocols would be expected to reduce the incidence to between 0.8% and 1.8%. The trials included in this review were very old and outcomes such as live births, multiple pregnancy, OHSS and miscarriages have not been reported by most studies.
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Biodemographic information, and psychometric measures of mood and coping.
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Twenty-nine relevant studies were identified in the English language literature. These studies consist almost exclusively of uncontrolled case series. Pregnancies after laparoscopic ovulation induction procedures have been reported in an average of 55% of treated subjects (range 20% to 65%). Potential advantages of laparoscopic ovulation induction over gonadotropin therapy may include possible cost savings, serial repetitive ovulatory events resulting from a single treatment, no increased risk of ovarian hyperstimulation or multiple gestation, and the prospect for a higher live birth rate owing to a seemingly lower incidence of miscarriage. Reported adverse effects include a high rate of intra-abdominal adhesion formation and a single case of iatrogenic premature menopause due to postoperative ovarian atrophy.
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Four cases of anovulatory/dysovulatory infertility encountered in Ilorin, Nigeria are presented and the literature extensively reviewed on the up-to-date management of this aspect of infertility. All the patients had bilateral tubal patency on hysterosalpingography (HSG) and their husbands had normal seminal fluid analysis. The first case, 30 years of age, had hyperprolactinaemia with galactorrhoea, treated with bromocriptine given 2.5 mg twice daily. Another case, aged 27 years, had polycystic ovarian syndrome with hyperprolactinaemia but no galactorrhea This was treated with clomiphene citrate 100 mg daily. The third case, 34 years old, had hypothyroidism with hyperprolactinaemia and galactorrhea and was treated with thyroxine. The last case, aged 32 years, had hyperprolactinaemia and was treated with bromocriptine and clomiphene citrate. None of the patients had demonstrable pituitary adenoma. After the appropriate treatment, ovulatory menses were restored in all the patients; two have been pregnant, while the other two have not yet achieved pregnancy but have having regular ovulatory menses. All the patients are Nigerians.
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In this study, we investigated the estrogenic activity of environmental estrogens by a competition binding assay using a human recombinant estrogens receptor (hERbeta) and by a proliferation assay using MCF-7 cells and a sulforhodamine-B assay. In the binding assay, pharmaceuticals had a stronger binding activity to hERbeta than that of some phytoestrogens (coumestrol, daidzein, genistein, luteolin, chrysin, flavone, and naringenin) or industrial chemicals, but phytoestrogens such as coumestrol had a binding activity as strong as pharmaceuticals such as 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE), tamoxifen (Tam), and mestranol. In the proliferation assay, pharmaceuticals such as diethylstilbestrol, EE, Tam, and clomiphene, and industrial chemicals such as 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and 4-dihydroxybiphenyl had a proliferation-stimulating activity as strong as 17beta-estradiol (ES). In addition, we found that phytoestrogens such as coumestrol, daidzein, luteolin, and quercetin exerted a proliferation stimulating activity as strong as ES. Furthermore, we examined the suppression of proliferation-stimulating activity, induced by environmental estrogen, by flavonoids, such as daidzein, genistein, quercetin, and luteolin, and found that these flavonoids suppressed the induction of the proliferation-stimulating activity of environmental estrogens. The suppressive effect of flavonoids suggests that these compounds have anti-estrogenic and anti-cancer activities.
A review of recent experience with clomiphene citrate at the Yale-New Haven Medical Center yields the following conclusions: 1) Clomiphene citrate administered at high doses (150 mg and 200 mg) is effective in inducing ovulation in women who would otherwise have failed to conceive if treatment were restricted to only lower dosage regimens. 2) Therapy with clomiphene citrate should be initiated with the 50-mg dose. The 100-mg dose should be reserved for those who fail with the lower dose. 3) Children resulting from clomiphene-induced ovulations appear to be developing normally both mentally and physically. Congenital malformations found in children from clomiphene-induced pregnancies are those seen commonly in general obstetric practice resulting in no significant problems for the children. 4) After 3 ovulations with clomiphene citrate approximately 50% of the patients can be expected to conceive. A 50% conception rate after 3 ovulations with clomiphene citrate does not represent a discrepancy between ovulation rates and pregnancy results, for it agrees statistically with the results obtained for the general population.
The medical records of 280 infertile patients who have underwent ovulation induction by using clomiphene citrate have been evaluated and cycle outcomes of the patients have been investigated specifically based on the timing of intrauterine insemination during the treatment cycle.
We consented 216 and randomly assigned 149 women (Lifestyle: n = 50; OCP: n = 49; Combined: n = 50). We achieved significant weight loss with both Lifestyle (mean weight loss, -6.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI), -7.4--5.0; and Combined (mean weight loss, -6.4%; 95% CI, -7.6--5.2) compared with baseline and OCP (both P < .001). There was a significant increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome at the end of preconception treatment compared with baseline within OCP (odds ratio [OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.42-4.27) whereas no change in metabolic syndrome was detected in the Lifestyle (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.63-2.19) or Combined (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.44-1.17) groups. Cumulative ovulation rates were superior after weight loss: OCP, 46%; Lifestyle, 60%; and Combined, 67% (P < .05). Live birth rates were OCP, 12%; Lifestyle, 26%; and Combined, 24% (P = .13).