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Inpatients aged ≥75 years with INR ≥5.0 were included in this observational study. INRs were assessed on the day of the overdosage (Day 0) and on the following day (Day 1).
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Retrospective data were collected from the National Heart Centre Singapore for AF patients receiving warfarin between January and June 2014. The TTR and the SAMe-TT2R2 score were calculated for each patient.
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We retrospectively included 76 patients diagnosed SIIH or AMI after abdominal CT.
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Treatment of children and adults with pulmonary hypertension (PH) with or without cardiac dysfunction has improved in the last two decades. The so-called pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-specific medications currently approved for therapy of adults with PAH target three major pathways (endothelin, nitric oxide, prostacyclin). Moreover, some PH centres may use off-label drugs for compassionate use. Pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease (PHVD) in children is complex, and selection of appropriate therapies remains difficult. In addition, paediatric PAH/PHVD therapy is vastly based on experience and trial data from adult rather than paediatric studies; however, the first randomised paediatric PAH trials have been conducted recently. We present consensus recommendations for the treatment of children with PH. Class of recommendation and level of evidence were assigned based on paediatric data only or on adult studies that included >10% children. After a systematic literature search and analysis of the published data, we developed treatment strategies and algorithms that can guide goal-oriented PH therapy. We discuss early combination therapy (double, triple) in patients with PAH in functional class II-IV and in those with inadequate response to the initial pharmacotherapy. In those children with progressive, severe PAH and inadequate response, advances in drug development, and interventional and surgical approaches provide promising new strategies to avoid, reverse or ameliorate right heart failure and left ventricular compression. In particular, first follow-up data indicate that Potts shunt (left pulmonary artery to descending aorta anastomosis) may be an alternative destination therapy, or bridge to bilateral lung transplantation, in end-stage paediatric PAH.
CYP2C9 and VKORC1 are two major genetic factors associated with inter-individual variability in warfarin dose. Additionally, genes in the warfarin metabolism pathway have also been associated with dose variance. We analyzed Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes to identify genetic factors that might confer warfarin sensitivity in Indonesian patients.
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Whenever measurements are taken on a patient or health care process, the measurement system must be analyzed in order to verify that it is adequate for the application. A Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R) study was performed to determine if blood samples taken from a patient on warfarin have the same International Normalized Ratio (INR) results when analyzed in different labs (reproducibility) and when analyzed multiple times in the same lab (repeatability). Results showed a statistically significant difference among labs. The therapeutic range for INR is typically 2.0 to 3.0, yet the data showed a difference in INR of 0.4 among labs on a small sample of 10 warfarin patients, almost 50 percent of the range. Root cause analysis revealed that the normalizing number (mean normal prothrombin time, MNPT) utilized in one of the labs varied greatly from other area labs. The team determined a new qualification process for MNPT to keep results consistent across all the labs.
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Forty LTC nurses validated the questionnaire to determine what protocols/procedures are involved in warfarin management. Twenty LTC nurses completed the survey, quantifying the time they spend on procedures related to warfarin management, and how often they performed each procedure for each resident each week.
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Using complete data of the TREAT-AF (The Retrospective Evaluation and Assessment of Therapies in AF) study from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system, we identified patients with newly diagnosed, nonvalvular AF seen within 90 days in an outpatient setting between VA fiscal years 2004 and 2008. We used multivariate and propensity-matched Cox proportional hazards to evaluate the association of digoxin use with death. Residual confounding was assessed by sensitivity analysis.
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We consider in this review traditional and novel approaches to drug prevention of pulmonary embolism (PE) which in predominant number of cases is related to deep vein thrombosis of lower extremities. Risk of PE development is especially high in patients after orthopedic hip or knee surgery. Modern recommendations contemplate use of unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins, vitamin K antagonists (warfarin in the first place), fondaparinux. Oral direct anticoagulants related to selective inhibitors of blood coagulation factors IIa (thrombin) and Xa have appeared recently and proved their preventive efficacy and safety in randomized controlled studies. Preventive efficacy and safety of dabigatran among direct selective factor IIa (thrombin) inhibitors and of rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban among direct selective factor IIa inhibitors have been studied best.
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Epidemiologic studies of stroke in the 1970s and 1980s have reported the percentage of ischemic stroke as 73% to 86%, with hemorrhagic stroke as only 8% to 18%; the remainder was undetermined (due to not performing computed tomographic [CT] scanning or an autopsy). In our clinical work, it appeared anecdotally to the authors that we were seeing more hemorrhagic strokes than these previously quoted figures.
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The implementation of a pharmacist-driven warfarin dosing protocol increased therapeutic INRs, and decreased the time to therapeutic range, as well as the proportion of subtherapeutic INRs and supratherapeutic INRs 5 or greater. Additional benefits of the protocol include documentation of Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal compliance, promotion of interdisciplinary collaboration and increased continuity of care.