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Cozaar (Losartan)

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Cozaar is an effective medication which helps to fight with the symptoms of high blood pressure and to reduce the risk of stroke in people with hypertension. It is used in the treatment of kidney problems in people with type 2 diabetes. Cozaar acts by preventing the hormone angiotensin II from constricting the blood vessels, which tends to raise blood pressure.

Other names for this medication:
Acetensa, Angibloc, Angilock, Angioten, Angizaar, Anreb, Anreb plus, Ara ii, Aralo x, Arapres, Aratan, Araten, Asart, Biortan, Cardizaar, Cardon, Cardoplus, Cardzaar, Cartan, Co-losar, Combizard, Cormac, Corodin, Corus, Cosart, Covance, Cozaarex, Cozzar, Czartan, Eklips, Enromic, Etan, Faxiven, Fensartan, Fortzaar, Forzaar, Giovax, Gitox, Hilos, Hizaar, Hypozar, Insaar, Klosartan, Lacine, Lakea, Lara, Larb, Larb plus, Lavestra, Lepitrin, Lifezar, Loben, Loctenk, Logika, Lohyp, Loortan, Lopernal, Loplac, Lopo, Lopress, Lorista, Los-arb, Losa, Losacar, Losachlor, Losacor, Losacor plus, Losadel, Losadrac, Losagen, Losalet, Losamet, Losan, Losan d, Losap, Losapot, Losapres, Losaprex, Losar, Losar-q, Losarb, Losardil, Losardil plus, Losargamma, Losarquilab, Losart, Losart plus, Losartanum, Losartas, Losartax, Losartec, Losartic, Losartil, Losatan, Losatrix, Losavik, Losazid, Losazide, Losium, Lospre, Lostad, Lostan, Lostankal, Lotan, Lotar, Lotim, Loxibin, Lozap, Lozar, Lozatan, Lozitan, Lyosan, Maxartan, Medzar, Mozartan, Myotan, Nefrotal, Neo lotan, Niten, Normatens, Nu-lotan, Ocsaar, Osartan, Osartan hz, Osartil, Osartil plus, Ostan, Ozarium, Portiron, Prelow, Prosan, Psycholanz, Ranlozar, Rasertan, Rasoltan, Repace, Resilo, Rosatan, Sanipresin, Sarilen, Sarlo, Sartaxal, Sartens, Sarvas, Sarvastan, Sarve, Satoren, Sedeten, Simperten, Sortal, Sortiva, Stadazar, Tacardia, Tacicul, Tanlozid, Tarnasol, Temisartan, Tensaar, Tensartan, Tensiohess, Tiasar, Tozaar, Vilbinitan, Xartan, Zaart, Zartan

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Also known as:  Losartan.


Cozaar is a perfect remedy, which helps to fight against the symptoms of high blood pressure and to reduce the risk of stroke in people with hypertension.

Its target is to treat kidney problems in people with type 2 diabetes.

Cozaar is also known as Losartan potassium, Cosart, Los-Po.

Cozaar acts by preventing the hormone angiotensin II from constricting the blood vessels, which tends to raise blood pressure. It is angiotensin II receptor antagonists.

Generic name of Cozaar is Losartan Potassium.

Brand name of Cozaar is Cozaar.


Take Cozaar tablets orally with or without food.

Do not crush or chew it.

Take Cozaar once or twice a day at the same time.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Cozaar suddenly.


If you overdose Cozaar and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Cozaar overdosage: fainting, feeling lightheaded, rapid heartbeat.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cozaar are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Cozaar if you are allergic to Cozaar components.

Do not take Cozaar if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Cozaar can harm your baby.

Do not use Cozaar if you are taking salt substitutes or potassium supplements, other blood pressure medicine, diuretic (water pill).

It can be dangerous to use Cozaar if you suffer from or have a history of liver disease, kidney disease, heart failure.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Avoid machine driving.

Do not stop taking Cozaar suddenly.

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We aim to identify the effects of food on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of amlodipine, losartan and losartan's active metabolite (EXP3174) after oral administration of the Compound Amlodipine Tablets with single dose in healthy Chinese subjects. 12 subjects took the compounds (10 mg/100 mg, amlodipine/losartan) at the conditions of a high-fat breakfast and an overnight fast with a washout period of 14 days. Plasma samples were obtained at scheduled time, and determined by HPLC-MS/MS for the concentrations of amlodipine and HPLC-MS for the concentrations of losartan and EXP3174, respectively. PK parameters were calculated using Software Drug and Statistics (Version 2.0). When tablets were co-administered with food, there was no significant difference of AUC for amlodipine and losartan, but the AUC of EXP3174 was reduced by 19.1%. Meanwhile, the Cmax of amlodipine, losartan and EXP3174 were reduced by 11.4%, 20.0% and 41.4%, and the Tmax of losartan and EXP3174 were 1.3 and 1.8 h longer, respectively. No significant difference was found at t1/2 following food intake. In conclusion, the Compound Amlodipine Tablets, are affected by food administration by reducing the AUC of EXP3174. It is thus suggested that the Compound Amlodipine Tablets should be administered 1 h before or 2 h after meal.

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Ang II upregulates LARG gene expression and activates the LARG/RhoA/MYPT1 axis via AT(1), thereby maintaining vascular tone.

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Forty-four patients hospitalized for suspected AMI within 4 hours of the onset of symptoms, who were suitable for thrombolysis (first episode), in Killip class I-II, reperfused, treated with 75 mg/day of captopril within 3 days of admission and with a blood pressure level of more than 120 mmHg, were randomized (single-blind) into two groups that were similar with regard to age, sex, blood pressure, CK peak, ejection fraction, end-systolic volume and risk factors. Group A (22 subjects: 6 women/16 men) received captopril (75 mg/day) and placebo, while group B (22 subjects: 5 women/17 men) was given captopril (75 mg/day) plus losartan, initially at 12.5 mg and then at 25 mg/day thereafter (BP > 110 mmHg). Norepinephrine (NE) and A II plasma levels were measured on the third and tenth day after admission.

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Aldosterone has been implicated for many years as an important substance in the pathogenesis of heart disease. Elevated aldosterone concentrations have been documented in patients with hypertension and heart failure, leading to the use of aldosterone antagonists for the treatment of these conditions. Spironolactone has been used for nearly 2 decades for the treatment of hypertension, and more recently, has become a standard agent for the treatment of systolic heart failure. Spironolactone, however, is a nonselective antagonist of the aldosterone receptor, binding also to other steroid receptors and causing a significant percentage of patients to have sex hormone-related adverse effects such as gynecomastia. Eplerenone is the first of a new class of drugs known as selective aldosterone receptor antagonists, which selectively block the aldosterone receptor with minimal effect at other steroid receptors, thereby minimizing many of the hormonal side effects seen with spironolactone. Eplerenone has been shown to be beneficial both as monotherapy and combination therapy for lowering elevated blood pressure in patients with hypertension. The antihypertensive efficacy of eplerenone is roughly similar to that of other antihypertensive agents, although in 1 study black patients responded better with eplerenone than losartan. In addition, eplerenone has demonstrated some renoprotective effects in diabetic patients with hypertension. Recently, eplerenone was shown to significantly reduce mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in post-myocardial infarction patients with systolic heart failure currently taking standard heart failure medications. Eplerenone is generally well tolerated, although hyperkalemia with this agent is of some concern. Eplerenone is metabolized by CYP3A4 and administration with potent inhibitors of this enzyme is contraindicated because of the risk of hyperkalemia. In summary, eplerenone has proven to be beneficial in treating hypertension and post-myocardial infarction heart failure. Its exact place in therapy will in large part be determined by its cost and whether or not future studies will be able to demonstrate a clinical benefit of this agent over spironolactone or other currently available treatments.

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Reduced proteinuria results in delayed deterioration of renal function and remission of proteinuria predicts a good long-term prognosis in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the combined angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker in reducing proteinuria in SRNS.

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When all patients were considered, lisinopril provided higher values of TPR [0.63/0.66 for systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP)], MER (1.02/0.77) and SI (1.01/0.87) than losartan (0.35/0.51, 0.60/0.60 and 0.64/0.53, respectively). Analysis of responders only, again showed a clear advantage of lisinopril over losartan in TPR (0.77/0.67 versus 0.44/0.47, respectively) and MER (0.86/0.87 versus 0.48/0.61), whereas there was no difference in SI (1.25/1.13 for lisinopril versus 1.11/1.12 for losartan).

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These results suggest that changes in the RVLM reactivity to Ang-(1-7) but not Ang II may contribute to the haemodynamic adjustments triggered by acute reductions in blood volume. The data obtained with [Sar1,Thr8]-Ang II and losartan suggest a primary inhibitory role for endogenous Ang II at the RVLM during haemorrhage.

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The endothelium is a source of several factors that regulate vascular functions. Angiotensin II is one of the main active factors released by the endothelium. The aim of the present work was to analyze the role of angiotensin II released by the endothelium in the regulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in rat isolated aortic vessels. Interleukin-1beta (0.03 U/L) stimulated nitrite release by the aortic vessels. The nitrite released was less in vessels with endothelium than in deendothelialized aortic segments. This effect was accompanied by a reduced expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase in the aortic rings with endothelium. Exogenous angiotensin II inhibited IL-1beta-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression in both deendothelialized vessels and those with endothelium, although with reduced ability on the aortic segments with endothelium by a nitric oxide-independent mechanism. In the aortic rings with endothelium, either inhibition of the AT-1 receptor with losartan or blocking of angiotensin II generation with fosinopril enhanced interleukin-1beta-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression. In conclusion, the endothelium decreases inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in the vascular wall. Angiotensin II released from endothelial cells is a main mediator responsible for this inhibition through an AT-1-type receptor-dependent mechanism.

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Mutational analysis based on the pharmacological differences between mammalian and amphibian angiotensin II receptors (AT receptors) previously identified 7 aa residues located in transmembrane domains (TMs) III (Val-108), IV (Ala-163), V (Pro-192, Thr-198), VI (Ser-252), and VII (Leu-300, Phe-301) of the rat AT receptor type 1b (rAT1b receptor) that significantly influenced binding of the nonpeptide antagonist Losartan. Further studies have shown that an additional 6 residues in the rAT1b receptor TMs II (Ala-73), III (Ser-109, Ala-114, Ser-115), VI (Phe-248), and VII (Asn-295) are important in Losartan binding. The 13 residues required for Losartan binding in the mammalian receptor were exchanged for the corresponding amino acids in the Xenopus AT receptor type a (xATa receptor) to generate a mutant amphibian receptor that bound Losartan with the same affinity as the rAT1b receptor (Losartan IC50 values: rAT1b, 2.2 +/- 0.2 nM: xATa, > 50 microM; mutant, 2.0 +/- 0.1 nM). To our knowledge, this is the first report of a gain-of-function mutant in which the residues crucial to formation of a ligand binding site in a mammalian peptide hormone receptor were transferred to a previously unresponsive receptor by site-directed mutagenesis. Ala substitutions and comparison of mammalian and amphibian combinatorial mutants indicated that TM III in the rAT1b receptor plays a key role in Losartan binding. Identification of residues involved in nonpeptide ligand binding will facilitate studies aimed at elucidating the chemical basis for ligand recognition in the AT receptor and peptide hormone receptors in general.

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Pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular relative weight decreased significantly in the rats of Losartan group; in addition, the percentage arterial wall thickness and percentage of muscularized small arteries in the Losartan group were reduced as compared with those in the operation group. The level 1 mRAN expression in rats with shunt was significantly higher than that in rats without shunt. The level mRNA expression in the Losartan group decreased remarkably as compared against that in the operation The level of HO-1 mRNA expression in lungs was significantly higher than that in ventricles. There statistically significant differences in HO-2 mRNA expression levels between the three rat groups.

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cozaar dosing 2015-03-29

Systolic blood pressure has a continuous, graded, strong, independent, and aetiologically significant relationship to mortality from coronary heart disease, stroke, and all cardiovascular diseases, as well as to all-cause mortality and life expectancy. Angiotensin II (AII) may be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of systolic hypertension through multiple mechanisms, including decreasing the elastin content and increasing the collagen content of the arterial wall, thickening and fibrotic remodelling of the vascular intima, and proliferating smooth muscle cells in the arterial wall, resulting in increased thickness, stiffening, and partial loss of contractility. AII antagonists may therefore offer hitherto unrecognized benefits (independent of blood pressure) on age-related vascular damage and provide particular benefits in patients with systolic hypertension. Recent evidence has demonstrated that losartan offers cardiovascular outcomes benefits in isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) associated with an excellent tolerability profile. This, in patients with Omnicef 600 Mg ISH, AII antagonists more facilitate systolic BP control, providing cardiovascular protection and offering an excellent risk-benefit profile.

cozaar overdose treatment 2015-09-14

1. The chronotropic effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) were investigated using injections (50 micrograms in 1 ml of Tyrode solution as bolus over 1 min) directly into the sinus node artery of 21 anaesthetized and vagotomized dogs which had been pretreated with a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist. The injections were also repeated following: (a) alpha-adrenoceptor antagonism (prazosin) and muscarinic receptor antagonism (atropine); (b) inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis (indomethacin); (c) angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonism (losartan); (d) histamine H1 (mepyramine) and H2 (cimetidine) receptor antagonism. 2. The results obtained indicate that ANP had no significant effect on the basal sinus rate, whereas CNP produced a slight but significant increase of 12 +/- 2 beats min-1. The effect of CNP was long-lasting (return to pre-injection levels after maximum effect in 17 +/- 3 min) and was not influenced by the various antagonists mentioned above. 3. During in vitro experiments on spontaneously beating right atria isolated from 6 dogs, the injection of CNP (50 micrograms in 1 ml of Tyrode solution) into the sinus node artery produced an increase Strattera Open Capsules in atrial rate of 14 +/- 1 beats min-1. 4. The results of this work indicate that CNP exerts a significant and prolonged positive chronotropic effect both in vivo and in vitro. Other studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of action of CNP on the heart conduction system, to ascertain the presence of natriuretic peptide receptor B in the region of the sinoatrial node and to determine the role of CNP in the control of heart rate.

cozaar 75 mg 2016-11-12

1. We previously reported that activation function of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) is enhanced in aorta strips from both prehypertensive and hypertensive spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and that this enhancement of MAPK activation results from enhanced MAPK activation reactivity to angiotensin (Ang) II in SHR aorta strips. 2. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the enhanced function of the vascular angiotensin system observed in SHR aorta strips results from genetic alterations of vascular smooth muscle cells from SHR. 3. Basal MAPK activity was within normal limits in cells from 4-week Cleocin Maximum Dose -old SHR, whereas enzyme activity was enhanced in 9-week-old SHR compared with age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. 4. Mitogen-activated protein kinase activation reactivity to AngII and endothelin-1 was enhanced in 9-week-old SHR cells but not in 4-week-old SHR cells. The enhancement of basal MAPK activity in 9-week-old SHR cells was abolished by a combination of the angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonist losartan and the endothelin receptor antagonist BQ123. 5. These findings suggest that MAPK activation function in 4-week-old SHR cells is not enhanced. Thus, it appears that factors outside vascular smooth muscle cells are needed for the enhanced MAPK activation observed in 4-week-old SHR aorta strips. In 9-week-old SHR, MAPK activation function is enhanced in cells themselves and this function may, at least in part, contribute to the enhanced MAPK activation observed in SHR aorta strips.

cozaar starting dose 2015-02-12

-Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in the young, is characterized by Risperdal Normal Dosage cardiac hypertrophy, myocyte disarray, and interstitial fibrosis. We propose that hypertrophy and fibrosis are secondary to the activation of trophic and mitotic factors and, thus, potentially reversible. We determined whether the blockade of angiotensin II, a known cardiotrophic factor, could reverse or attenuate interstitial fibrosis in a transgenic mouse model of human HCM.

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Individual blood pressure responses to antihypertensive Flomax Medication therapy are difficult to predict. To improve optimization of antihypertensive therapy, we analyzed correlations of relevant laboratory tests with blood pressure responses to four antihypertensive monotherapies.

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We studied the effects of angiotensin Zetia Unit Dose type 1 receptor blockade (ARB) on formation of new cardiomyocytes, neovascularization and ventricular remodelling after myocardial infarction (MI).

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The Coumadin 50 Mg animal model with chronic renal failure was established by using the method of 5/6 nephrectomy. The animals were randomly divided into four groups: SXFYC treatment group, losartan treatment group, control group and pseudo-operation group (normal group). Since the next day after operations, the rats in the SXFYC treatment group and the losartan treatment group had been intragastrically administrated with SXFYC 300 mg/kg x d and losartan 150 mg/kg x d respectively. The rats in the normal group and control group were fed with sodium chloride twice a day. Four, eight and twelve weeks later, histological and biochemical tests were undertaken to examine changes of the remnant kidney such as alpha-SMA, collagen I, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and proteinuria. The connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA was detected by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

cozaar 40 mg 2016-05-09

Left ventricular dysfunction is associated with reperfusion injury occurring during open-heart surgery. There is an increased secretion of angiotensin II (Ang II) and increased matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activities associated with open-heart surgery that may affect the cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM). The goal of this study was to determine the effects of Ang II and selective angiotensin II receptor (AT1-R and AT2-R) blockers on the enzymatic activities of MMPs in primary adult murine cardiac fibroblasts (CF). Our hypothesis is that Aug II, with and without a selective receptor blocker, differentially affects CF MMPs activities. The CF were treated with Ang II (10(-6) M) and doses of AT1-R and AT2-R blockers (losartan and PD123319, respectively) at doses of 10(-7) to 10(-5) M for 48 hours. The Ang II-stimulated CF reduced collagenase activities by only 24% (p = 0.004); however, the MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinase activities were reduced by 42% and 39%, respectively (p = 0.022). The losartan dose dependently increased MMP-2 (p = 0.02) and MMP-9 (ns). PD123319 at 10(-5) M significantly reduced Neurontin 600mg Tablet MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities compared with the Ang II group (p = 0.014 and p = 0.02, respectively). The doses of PD123319 at 10(-6) and 10(-7) M increased the MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzymatic activities significantly above the Ang II only group. Thus, Ang II and AT1-R and AT2-R differentially affect the collagenase and gelatinase MMPs activities released by cardiac fibroblasts.

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Angiotensin II (ANG II) has long been known for its pressor and growth-promoting effects, which are both mediated by the AT1 receptor. By contrast, the AT2 receptor has recently been reported to mediate inhibition of proliferation through as yet undefined mechanisms. We report here that in bovine adrenal fasciculata cells ANG II by itself does not affect growth but inhibits basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced DNA synthesis and blocks the cells in G1 phase. Consistent with this, ANG II inhibits cyclin D1 Crestor Prescription Prices expression and cyclin D1-associated kinase activity. The antimitogenic effect of ANG II is partly mimicked by the AT2-selective agonist CGP-42112. It is also blocked partly and in an additive fashion by the AT1- and AT2-selective antagonists losartan and PD-123319, indicating the contribution of both receptor subtypes to this response. AT1-dependent antiproliferation is selectively blocked by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin and restored by prostaglandin E2, whereas AT2-receptor-mediated inhibition of growth is suppressed by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors orthovanadate and bpV(pic). Both pathways are, however, pertussis toxin sensitive. We hypothesize that, in fasciculata cells, the AT1 receptor inhibits bFGF-induced proliferation by stimulating prostaglandin synthesis, whereas the AT2 receptor mediates its effect through a pathway that requires protein tyrosine phosphatase activation.