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Chronic pain in fibromyalgia patients, together with its associated symptoms and co-morbidities, is now considered a result of dysregulated mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS). As fibromyalgia patients often report sleep problems, the physiological processes that normally regulate sleep may be disturbed and overlap with other CNS dysfunctions. Although the mechanisms potentially linking chronic widespread pain, sleep alterations and mood disorders have not yet been proven, polysomnography findings in patients with fibromyalgia and non-restorative sleep and their relationships with clinical symptoms support the hypothesis of a conceptual common mechanism called 'central sensitisation'. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs for the treatment of fibromyalgia may benefit sleep, but their label does not include the treatment of fibromyalgia-associated sleep disorders. Non-pharmacological therapies (including a thorough sleep assessment) can be considered in the first-line treatment of non-restorative sleep, although they have not yet been fully investigated in patients with fibromyalgia. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments should be used cautiously in patients with fibromyalgia, bearing in mind the patients' underlying disorders and the potential interactions of the therapies.
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AS1069562 is the (+)-isomer of indeloxazine, which had been clinically used as a cerebral activator for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases with serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition (SNRI) and neuroprotection. Here, we compared the analgesic effects of repeated treatment with AS1069562 and duloxetine, a selective SNRI, on pain-related behavior in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic neuropathy. Further, we also evaluated the effects on the expression of neurotrophic factors and nerve conduction velocity. AS1069562 and duloxetine by single daily administration for 4 weeks significantly improved mechanical allodynia in STZ-induced diabetic rats and did not affect plasma glucose level or body weight. Interestingly, the analgesic effect of AS1069562 continued after a consecutive 1-week treatment discontinuation, although the plasma concentration of AS1069562 was reduced to undetectable levels. In contrast, the efficacy of duloxetine disappeared after treatment discontinuation. Expression analysis demonstrated that AS1069562 significantly restored decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 and fibroblast growth factor 2 mRNA levels in dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord, respectively, whereas duloxetine did not affect the expression levels of neurotrophic factors. In addition, AS1069562 reversed the slowing of nerve conduction velocity. The results of this study indicate that the analgesic effect of repeated dosing of AS1069562 but not duloxetine is persistent even after a 1-week drug discontinuation in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Restoration of neurotrophic factors may be involved in the curative-like pharmacological effect of this agent. Thus, AS1069562 may potentially offer a better treatment option for patients with painful diabetic neuropathy than duloxetine via different mechanisms.
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These were post-hoc analyses of 3-month data from 4 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies that assessed efficacy of duloxetine in adults with FM. Severity of stiffness was assessed by using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) on a scale from 0 (no stiffness) to 10 (most severe stiffness). The association between changes in stiffness and other measures was evaluated by using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The FIQ total score and items, the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI-modified short form), the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Sheehan Disability Scale, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, and the EuroQoL Questionnaire-5 Dimensions were evaluated in the correlation analyses. Stepwise linear regression was used to identify the variables that were most highly predictive of the changes in FIQ stiffness.
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To compare the effects of starting doses of duloxetine taken with or without food on tolerability and efficacy in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
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Patients who started 1 of the 4 common drugs for fibromyalgia similarly had multiple comorbidities and other fibromyalgia-related medication use, but continued the treatment only for a short time. The dose of the 4 drugs was not increased in most patients during the followup period.
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This study examined the efficacy and tolerability of duloxetine and venlafaxine extended-release (XR) treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), with a secondary focus on psychic and somatic symptoms within GAD.
While emotional symptoms such as depressed mood and loss of interest have traditionally been considered to constitute the core symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), the prevalence and importance of painful physical symptoms such as back pain, abdominal pain, and musculoskeletal pain is becoming increasingly appreciated. Antidepressants possessing dual serotonin/norepinephrine (5-HT/NE) reuptake inhibition may demonstrate greater efficacy in the alleviation of pain. The efficacy of duloxetine, a balanced and potent dual reuptake inhibitor of 5-HT and NE, was evaluated within a cohort of depressed patients with associated painful physical symptoms.
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Of the total (n = 256) patients, 111 (86.7%) in placebo group and 93 (72.7%) in duloxetine group completed the study. Patients treated with duloxetine had significantly (P ≤ 0.001) greater improvement at all time points on BPI average pain and had significantly greater improvement on BPI pain severity ratings (P ≤ 0.05), WOMAC total (P = 0.044) and physical functioning scores (P = 0.016), and CGI-S (P = 0.009) at the study endpoint. Frequency of treatment-emergent nausea, constipation, and hyperhidrosis were significantly higher in the duloxetine group (P ≤ 0.05). Significantly more duloxetine-treated patients discontinued the trial because of adverse events (P = 0.002).
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The placebo response associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is sizeable but poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between previous treatment experience and baseline urinary incontinence severity with placebo response.
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Osteoarthritis (OA) knee pain is common in older patients and contributes to decreased quality of life. Older patients are generally at higher risk of adverse drug reactions due to age-related changes in physiology that affect drug disposition, metabolism, and response. These analyses examined efficacy and safety outcomes of older (≥65 years) versus younger patients from clinical trials of duloxetine in the management of OA knee pain.
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A reasonable assumption is that incontinence would be relieved by increasing urethral resistance through stimulating alpha-adrenergic receptors in urethral smooth muscle. A review of available medical treatment of stress urinary incontinence is done. Alpha-receptor agonists are not in common use because of systemic side-effects. Estrogens do not seem to have beneficial effect on stress urinary incontinence. Currently, new molecules such as duloxetine, are uptake inhibitor of serotonin and noradrenaline could provide a noninvasive therapy for patients with urinary incontinence. Further studies to identify clinical applications are required.
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For efficacy we included randomised trials of SGAs compared with other SGAs, placebo, light therapy or psychotherapy in adult participants with SAD. For adverse effects we also included non-randomised studies.