duricef with alcohol
The bacteria isolated from the urine of renal patients were tested for sensitivity towards cephadroxyl (Pharmachem) and other beta-lactam antibiotics--altogether 654 examinations were made. It was established that the gram-positive bacteria (excluding the Enterococcus) are sensitive towards cephadroxyl. From the Gram negative bacteria E. Coli, Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., P. mirabilis, Citrobacter sp. showed the greatest sensitivity towards cephadroxyl, while the indole positive Proteus were with low sensitivity and P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter sp., Serratia were resistant towards cephadroxyl. 30 patients with persistent mainly secondary urinary infection were treated with cephadroxyl. The clinical symptoms disappeared in 63.3% of the patients and another 26.7% of them showed considerable improvement. Bacteriological sterility of the urine was achieved in 61.29% of the patients. The side effects were mild and rare, only in single cases.
duricef liquid dosage
A fast and simple high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for the determination of cefatrizine, an orally active cephalosporin, in serum and urine is proposed. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography on the octoadecylsilane chemically bonded microparticulate packing, using methanol in 0.03 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 5) as eluent, was used to separate and quantitate the antibiotic. The samples were analysed after deproteinization with trichloroacetic acid and injection of the clear supernatant. The accuracy and reproducibility of the procedure were investigated by determination of the cefatrizine content in spiked serum and urine samples, using cephradine as the internal standard.
The human Caco-2 cell line spontaneously differentiates in culture to epithelial cells possessing intestinal enterocytic-like properties. These cells possess a proton-dependent dipeptide transport carrier that mediates the uptake of the cephalosporin antibiotic cephalexin (Dantzig, A.H. and Bergin, L. (1990) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1027, 211-217). In the present study, the uptake of cefaclor was examined and found to be sodium-independent, proton-dependent, and energy-dependent. The initial rate of D-[3-phenyl-3H]cefaclor uptake was measured over a wide concentration range; uptake was mediated by a single saturable transport carrier with a Km of 7.6 mM and a Vmax of 7.6 nmol/min per mg protein and by a non-saturable component. Uptake was inhibited by dipeptides but not amino acids. The carrier showed a preference for the L-isomer. The effect of the presence of a 5-fold excess of other beta-lactam antibiotics was examined on the initial rates of 1 mM cefaclor and 1 mM cephalexin uptake. Uptake rates were inhibited by the orally absorbed antibiotics, cefadroxil, cefaclor, loracarbef, and cephradine and less so by the parenteral agents tested. The initial uptake rates of both D-[9-14C]cephalexin and D-[3-phenyl-3H]cefaclor were competitively inhibited by cephalexin, cefaclor, and loracarbef with Ki values of 9.2-13.2, 10.7-6.2, and 7.7-6.4 mM, respectively. Taken together, these data suggest that a single proton-dependent dipeptide transport carrier mediates the uptake of these orally absorbed antibiotics into Caco-2 cells, and provide further support for the use of Caco-2 cells as a cellular model for the study of the intestinal proton-dependent dipeptide transporter.
duricef dosage cellulitis
The reviewed pediatric studies in skin and skin-structure infections, bacteremia, or pneumonia found that linezolid was associated with high clinical cure rates (75.0%-93.2%) that did not differ significantly from those of vancomycin or cefadroxil. RCTs enrolling children with other types of infection (eg, osteomyelitis, endocarditis), as well as long-term studies, are needed to draw definitive conclusions about linezolid's efficacy and tolerability in pediatric patients. Careful monitoring for adverse events and possible linezolid resistance continues to be essential.
A total of 358 recent distinct isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were recovered from clinical specimens of patients in various hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The commonest serotypes were Groups C, F, B and A. Using specific monosera for typing it was found that serotype 14 was the commonest followed by serotypes 3, 7, 1, 2, 19 and 8 respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin determined by an agar dilution method, showed that 81% were susceptible (MIC less than 0.1 mg/L), 18% were relatively resistant (MIC = 0.1-1 mg/L) and 1% showed increased resistance (MIC greater than or equal to 1.0 mg/L). The use of a 1 microgram oxacillin disc distinguished between susceptible and relatively penicillin resistant pneumococci more reliably than did the use of a penicillin disc (1 or 10 micrograms). Resistance of S. pneumoniae to tetracycline, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin were 70%, 43%, 12% and 4% respectively. All isolates were susceptible to oral cephalosporins (cefadroxil, cephalexin, cefaclor, and cefuroxime axetil) with an MIC range of less than or equal to 0.03-2 mg/L. The selection of antimicrobial therapy and the efficiency of vaccines depend on the knowledge of the local isolates of S. pneumoniae. Clinical isolates should be routinely screened to detect susceptibility to penicillin. The relatively high incidence of resistance to multiple antibiotics indicates the need to perform antibiotic susceptibility testing in order to avoid possible therapeutic failure.
duricef oral suspension
The increasing resistance of E. coli to trimethoprim makes this drug less suitable for empiric treatment of UTI. Young children with UTI seem predisposed to early development of resistance. Therefore, surveillance of resistance to antimicrobials with special regard to age and gender is recommended.
duricef 125 mg
The transport characteristics of chemically modified phenylalanylglycine (Phe-Gly) with butyric acid (C4-Phe-Gly) and caproic acid (C6-Phe-Gly) were examined using rabbit intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMVs). In the presence of an inwardly H+ gradient (pH 7.5 inside, pH 6.0 outside), the uptake of Phe-Gly via BBMVs was significantly enhanced by the covalent attachment of butyric or caproic acid to the N-terminal of Phe-Gly. Moreover, C4-Phe-Gly uptake was stimulated by the trans-stimulation effect of some dipeptides and cefadroxil, and was inhibited by other dipeptides and cefadroxil. These results indicate that N-terminal modified Phe-Gly with fatty acids are transported into BBMVs via an oligopeptide transporter. Therefore, chemical modification of dipeptides with fatty acids can enhance the intestinal absorption of dipeptide by a carrier-mediated transport via an oligopeptide transporter.
duricef dose children
The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the published evidence regarding the commonly held belief that patients with a history of an allergic reaction to penicillin have a significantly increased risk of an allergic reaction to cephalosporins.
duricef suspension 250
Betalactamase-producing organisms are responsible for an increasing number of ENT and lower respiratory tract infections. Or cephalosporins and the combination of amoxicillin with the beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid are alternatives to ampicillin therapy. The killing activity of cefadroxil on the organisms most often responsible for ENT and respiratory infections was evaluated in vitro using a viable bacteria count method, comparatively with cefaclor, josamycin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Killing activity was found to be time-dependent for all the antimicrobial agents studied. Cefadroxil exhibited the same bactericidal effect on Streptococcus pyogenes and S. pneumoniae than the other agents. Haemophilus influenzae and an increasing number of Pneumococcus strains were resistant to josamycin which is therefore not appropriate for first-line therapy. As compared with amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefadroxil was less active on H. influenzae and more active on Staphylococcus aureus. Production of beta-lactamase failed to influence the killing activity of cefadroxil. These bacteriologic data, together with results of pharmacologic studies (long half-life and good penetration within tissues) can explain the clinical successes obtained with cefadroxil in ENT and lower respiratory tract infections.