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Prior antidepressant therapy recorded in electronic health records.
The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the clinical and economic value of the use of 50mg-desvenlafaxine compared to the usual care (mix of duloxetine and venlafaxine) in the outpatient treatment of major depressive disorder after first line treatment failure (relapse) in Spain.
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The charts of 16 patients who were admitted to medical and surgical inpatient services and given extended-release venlafaxine were retrospectively evaluated for dose and duration of drug treatment, blood pressure changes, medication changes, and side effects.
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Venlafaxine use was consistently associated with higher risk of suicide compared with citalopram, fluoxetine, and dothiepin. Venlafaxine users had a higher burden of suicide risk factors, however, and adjustment for measured confounders substantially reduced the excess risks. Since the secondary data used in this analysis allowed only indirect and partial measurements of potential confounders, it is possible that residual confounding explains much, if not all, of the observed excess risk.
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A rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for simultaneous measurement of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine in human plasma using fluoxetine as an internal standard. In the liquid-liquid extraction method, compounds and internal standard were extracted from plasma using methyl tertiary butyl ether as an extraction solvent. The HPLC separation of the analytes was performed on a Zorbax SB-C(18), 50 x 4.6 mm, 5 microm column, using a isocratic elution program using a mobile phase consisting of HPLC-grade methanol: 5 mm ammonium acetate (80:20 v/v) at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min with a total runtime of 3.0 min. The proposed method has been validated with a linear range of 4-400 ng/mL for venlafaxine and 5-500 ng/mL for O-desmethyl venlafaxine. The method was applied for a bio-equivalence study of 75 mg tablets formulation in 32 Indian male healthy subjects under fasting conditions.
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Venlafaxine, a member of a novel chemical class, phenethylamines, is a new antidepressant that inhibits neuronal uptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine (in decreasing order of potency) at doses of 75 to 375 mg per day. Depression and antidepressant drugs are known to modify human sleep patterns. Our objective in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to assess the effects of venlafaxine on polysomnographic variables by comparing the effects of venlafaxine and placebo on sleep (hypnographic and all-night electroencephalographic [EEG] spectral analysis) and clinical measures (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAM-D], Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS], and Clinical Global Impressions [CGI]) in inpatients with major depression (DSM-III-R). Following a 7- to 13-day placebo washout period, patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or venlafaxine (maximum dose 225 mg/day) for up to 29 days. Sleep evaluations took place at baseline (3 nights immediately before entering the double-blind phase), after 1 week of treatment, and after 1 month of treatment. Sleep stage parameters and all-night spectral parameters were first tested by analysis of variance for repeated measures and then, if indicated, by two-tailed Student t-test. The results on psychiatric rating scales showed improvement from baseline in both treatment groups at all time points, with improvement tending to be greater in the venlafaxine group. Venlafaxine induced a decrease of sleep continuity (decreased total sleep time and increased wake time), an important increase in the onset latency of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and a decrease in total REM sleep duration. All-night sleep EEG frequency structure was not modified significantly by venlafaxine treatment as compared with placebo. In conclusion, venlafaxine, despite its novel chemical structure, shows a sleep profile comparable with that of most classical antidepressants.
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Several lines of evidence support an important genetic contribution to the wide individual variation in therapeutic response to antidepressant medications. The Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study provided the largest cohort assembled to date of DNA from patients with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder, uniformly treated with citalopram and followed prospectively for up to 12 weeks. This pivotal study changed the face of pharmacogenetics research by increasing the sample size by an order of magnitude as well as by providing detailed prospective information about antidepressant response and tolerability. Several groups have identified markers in genes and tested the replication of previous findings of genes associated with outcome and side effects of antidepressant treatment. Variants in HTR2A, GRIK4, and KCNK2 were associated with citalopram treatment outcome. Replication was achieved in markers in the FKBP5 gene. Other findings in PDE11A and BDNF were not successfully replicated, and reports of potential confounders in previous associations with serotonin transporter variation (SLC6A4) were identified. Polymorphisms in pharmacokinetic genes involved in metabolism and transmembrane transport were also not associated with antidepressant response. Adverse events were also tested. Treatment-emergent suicidal ideation was associated with GRIK2, GRIA3, PAPLN, IL28RA, and CREB1. Sexual dysfunction was linked with variation in GRIN3A, GRIA1 GRIA3, and GRIK2. Reported and future findings of pharmacogenetics studies in STAR*D could help elucidate pathways involved in major depression and those pertinent to antidepressant outcome and side effects. Replication of these findings in independent samples could lead to the development of new treatments and to optimization of available treatments.
Interindividual variability was 77% and 33% for concentrations of racemic V and ODV, respectively. Intraindividual variability was below 20% for both compounds. Enantiomeric ratios did not statistically differ from unity, with median (+)/(-) ratios of 1.14 for V and 0.97 for ODV. ODV/V metabolite formation ratios for the (+) and (-) enantiomers did not significantly differ from each other (median values 2.85 and 2.37, respectively). However, reduced ODV/V ratio for the (-) enantiomer was strongly associated with decreased (+)/(-) ratio for V (r(S)=0.71, P<0.001) and increased (+)/(-) ratio for ODV (r(S)=-0.79, P<0.001). In contrast, ODV/V ratio for the (+) enantiomer did not significantly correlate with parent compound (+)/(-) ratio and correlated only weakly with metabolite (+)/(-) ratio (r(S)=-0.38, P<0.05). When compared with males, females displayed a significantly lower ODV/V ratio for the (-) enantiomer (median values 1.42 vs 5.08 on day 14, P<0.05) but not for the (+) enantiomer (median values 2.36 vs 3.27, n.s.). Analysis did not reveal any significant association between ODV/V ratios and age, weight, height, creatinine clearance, smoking or co-medication. A pharmacokinetic model at steady state was developed that postulated two different enzyme systems to contribute to O-desmethylation. ODV(-) formation was supposed to largely depend on a single pathway, possibly impaired in a patient subpopulation. ODV(+) formation was postulated to rely on both pathways to a similar extent. Model predictions were in close agreement with observations in patients.
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There is increasing evidence linking depression and cardiovascular disease. However, the authors could find no literature directly linking depression with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. The authors report the case of a patient with uncontrolled atrial arrhythmia who cardioverted to normal sinus rhythm after treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with venlafaxine. The authors discuss comorbidity of MDD and atrial fibrillation, and explore evidence of venlafaxine as an antiarrhythmic agent. Further research is needed to establish the clinical role of venlafaxine as a Class 1 antiarrhythmic agent and any association between atrial arrhythmias and MDD and PTSD.