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Several cellular and molecular mechanisms have been implicated in migraine pathophysiology including abnormal neuronal excitability and vascular events. Drugs from different pharmacological classes are used for migraine prophylaxis. These agents may normalize neuronal excitability by modulating distinct ionic channels and various neurotransmitter systems. They can also block cortical spreading depression, prevent peripheral and/or central pain sensitization, and normalize brainstem function. Most of the drugs recently used in migraine prophylaxis have been identified by serendipidy and they have been originally approved for other indications. Subsequently, their use has been extended to migraine prevention, according to their putative mechanisms of action. More recently, trials on adequate samples of migraine patients have been conducted for several drugs. In the present review, we will present and discuss the pathophysiological bases for the use of antidepressants, beta-adrenergic blockers, calcium channel blockers and antiepileptic drugs in migraine prevention. Currently, the major classes of conventional migraine preventive drugs include the antidepressant amitriptyline, the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol, and the antiepileptic drugs topiramate and valproic acid. Promising results have recently been obtained for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers. Some limited clinical findings have also been reported for atypical antipsychotic agents, nutritional supplements and also botulinum toxin. Targets of migraine preventive treatment are to reduce frequency and intensity of attacks and to decrease disability related to chronic headache.
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The study goal was to determine whether direct injection of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) into trigger points was efficacious for cervicothoracic myofascial pain, and if so, to determine the presence or absence of a dose-response relation. One hundred thirty-two patients with cervical or shoulder myofascial pain or both and active trigger points were enrolled in a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After a 2-week washout period for all medications, patients were injected with either saline or 10, 25, or 50 U BoNT-A into up to five active trigger points. The maximum doses in each experimental group were 0, 50, 125, and 250 U per patient, respectively. Patients subsequently received myofascial release physical therapy and amitriptyline, ibuprofen, and propoxyphene-acetaminophen napsylate. Follow-up visits occurred at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks. Outcome measures included visual analog pain scores, pain threshold as measured by pressure algometry, and rescue dose use of propoxyphene-acetaminophen napsylate.
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Corticobasal degeneration(CBD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised clinically by apraxia, cortical sensory loss, alien limb, dementia, oculomotor abnormalities, dysarthria, postural instability, akinesia, rigidity, and pyramidal signs. Brain imaging may demonstrate greater abnormalities contralateral to the more affected side. We reported a case of corticobasal degeneration of which praxic impairments were improved by administration of amantadine. The patient was a 63-year-old right-handed woman. She showed marked dysfunction including rigidity, limb kinetic apraxia, cortical sensory loss, ideomotor apraxia, and dressing apraxia. A brain MRI scan revealed bilateral cortical atrophy centered in the postcentral gyrus, more pronounced in the left hemisphere than the right. A SPECT scan showed a decrease in blood flow in the temporo-parieto-occipital regions, more pronounced in the left hemisphere than the right. An EEG showed a diffuse slowness. L-dopa had no effect on the symptoms of rigidity, limb kinetic apraxia, cortical sensory loss, ideomotor apraxia, and dressing apraxia. By administration of amantadine, rigidity and cortical sensory loss did not improve, but some praxic impairments, such as dressing apraxia and ideomotor apraxia, and the EEG improved. Upon withdrawal of amantadine, the improved symptoms deteriorated. Amitriptyline did not improve the deteriorated symptoms. After amantadine was re-administered, the same praxic impairments and the EEG improved again. This suggested that administration of amantadine had some effect on certain praxic impairments and the EEG.
Bayesian techniques were used successfully to obtain estimates of population effect, despite the small number of participants. The mean treatment effect for pain was 0.67 (SD 0.89, 95% credible interval -0.99, 2.55). The probability that the treatment effect was < 0 was only 16%.
To compare the efficacy and safety of pregabalin and amitriptyline in alleviating pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
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All 20 animals experienced cardiac conduction delays, dysrhythmias, and progressive hypotension within 30 minutes of receiving IV amitriptyline at 0.5 mg/kg/min. The ten swine receiving CPB as treatment for cardiovascular toxicity were able to completely correct the dysrhythmias, cardiac conduction abnormalities, and hypotension produced by the amitriptyline; however, only one of ten control animals could be resuscitated (P = .0001). Nine of ten swine treated with CPB were easily weaned off bypass without any pharmacologic intervention; however, one required norepinephrine to be weaned. All 11 resuscitated swine were able to be salvaged.
Drugs are widely used in borderline personality disorder (BPD) treatment, chosen because of properties known from other psychiatric disorders ("off-label use"), mostly targeting affective or impulsive symptom clusters.
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Preventive medications appear to be a cost-effective approach to the management of migraine in the primary care setting compared with the approach of abortive treatment only. Among those preventive agents, probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggests that, when the societal WTP is <$US18 000 per QALY gained, amitriptyline 75 mg/day is most likely to be considered a cost-effective option.
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The study included patients followed up at a specialized consultation in a university hospital.
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A new fiber based on the electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide was prepared on a copper wire for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) applications. The prepared fiber was used for the SPME and gas chromatographic analysis of tricyclic antidepressants (TCADs), including amitriptyline, trimipramine, and clomipramine. The feasibility of direct-immersion and headspace modes of SPME for the determination of TCADs was studied. The effects of four parameters including pH, salt content, extraction temperature with and without cooling the fiber, and extraction time were investigated. The comparison showed that headspace cold fiber SPME results in the best outcome for the extraction of TCADs. Under the optimized conditions of this mode, the calibration curves were linear between 2.0 and 500 ng/mL and the detection limits were between 0.30 and 0.53 ng/mL. The intraday and interday RSDs obtained at 20 ng/mL (n = 5), using a single fiber, were 5.5-9.0 and 7.5-9.8, respectively. The fiber to fiber repeatability (n = 4), expressed as the RSD, was between 12.8 and 13.2% at a 20 ng/mL concentration level. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of TCADs in plasma samples showing recoveries from 73 to 96%.