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Eldepryl (Selegiline Hydrochloride)
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Also known as: Selegiline Hydrochloride.

Description

Eldepryl is a medication which prevents the breakdown of a chemical in your brain.

Eldepryl is used to treat Parkinson's disease.

Eldepryl is also known as Selegiline.

Eldepryl prevents the breakdown of a chemical in your brain called dopamine, thereby prevents Parkinson's disease.

Brand names of Eldepryl are Eldepryl, Zelapar.

Dosage

Take Eldepryl orally.

Take Eldepryl capsules twice a day, at breakfast and lunch.

Do not swallow the tablet whole. Allow it to dissolve in your mouth without chewing.

Do not drink or eat anything for at least 5 minutes after takink Eldepryl.

While using Eldepryl, you must not eat foods that are high in tyramine such as air dried meats, aged or fermented meats, sausage or salami (including cacciatore and mortadella), pickled herring, and any spoiled or improperly stored beef, poultry, fish, or liver; beer from a tap, beer that has not been pasteurized; aged cheeses, including blue, boursault, brick, brie, camembert, cheddar, emmenthaler, gruyere, parmesan, romano, roquefort, stilton, and swiss; sauerkraut, soy beans, soy sauce, tofu, miso soup, bean curd, fava beans; yeast extracts (such as Marmite).

Preferable food during Eldepryl usage are fresh meat, poultry, or fish (including lunch meat, hot dogs, breakfast sausage, and cooked sliced ham); any vegetables except broad bean pods (fava beans); processed cheese, mozzarella, ricotta, cottage cheese; pizza made with cheeses low in tyramine; soy milk, yogurt.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Eldepryl suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Eldepryl and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Eldepryl overdosage: severe headache, hallucinations, vision problems, sweating, cool or clammy skin, fast or uneven heart rate, feeling light-headed, fainting, seizure.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Eldepryl are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Eldepryl if you are allergic to Eldepryl components.

Do not take Eldepryl if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Be careful using Eldepryl if you have kidney disease, liver disease, heart disease, high or low blood pressure, seizure disorder.

Be careful using Eldepryl if you take over-the-counter medications you use, including vitamins, minerals, and herbal products, carbamazepine (Tegretol), diet pills or cold medicines that contain ephedrine, pseudoephedrine or phenylephrine, nafcillin (Unipen), phenobarbital (Luminal, Solfoton), rifampin (Rifadin, Rifater, Rifamate, Rimactane), antidepressants such as amitriptyline (Elavil), amoxapine (Ascendin), bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban), citalopram (Celexa), clomipramine (Anafranil), desipramine (Norpramin), doxepin (Sinequan), duloxetine (Cymbalta), escitalopram (Lexapro), fluoxetine (Prozac), fluvoxamine (Luvox), imipramine (Tofranil), nortriptyline (Pamelor), paroxetine (Paxil), protriptyline (Vivactil), sertraline (Zoloft), venlafaxine (Effexor) or trimipramine (Surmontil).

While using Eldepryl, you must not eat foods that are high in tyraminesuch as air dried meats, aged or fermented meats, sausage or salami (including cacciatore and mortadella), pickled herring, and any spoiled or improperly stored beef, poultry, fish, or liver; beer from a tap, beer that has not been pasteurized; aged cheeses, including blue, boursault, brick, brie, camembert, cheddar, emmenthaler, gruyere, parmesan, romano, roquefort, stilton, and swiss; sauerkraut, soy beans, soy sauce, tofu, miso soup, bean curd, fava beans; yeast extracts (such as Marmite).

Do not take Eldepryl if you use over-the-counter supplements or cough and cold medicines that contain tyramine.

It can be dangerous to stop Eldepryl taking suddenly.

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We considered randomized trials comparing antidepressant drugs to placebo or an alternative therapeutic control for smoking cessation. We excluded trials with less than 6 months follow-up.

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The development of pharmacogenetic-based clinical practice guidelines for the use of anti-Parkinson's disease drugs requires, as a pre-requisite, the identification and validation of genetic biomarkers. These biomarkers are then used as surrogate endpoints. This review analyzes potential genetic biomarkers which can be used to improve anti-Parkinson's disease therapy.

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Deprenyl inhibits MAO-B selectively in different animal species and in man. Its safety margin is remarkable. We were able to block MAO-B activity in the brain selectively in vivo in four species (mouse, rat, cat, dog) with s.c. administration of 0.17-0.31% of LD50. The usual oral dose range in clinical practice, 5-20 mg daily (0.05-0.2 mg/kg), is about ten times lower than the orally active dose in the rat. Deprenyl proved to be safe drug in man. Neither hypertensive reactions nor the need for any special dietary care were ever encountered during long-term (2-8 years) daily administration of the drug. The most important effect of deprenyl in the brain is the sensitization of dopaminergic neurons to physiological and pharmacological influences, but in contrast to levodopa or bromocrytine, deprenyl does not elicit an acute increase in dopaminergic activity. The effect of deprenyl is due, on the one hand, to the inhibition of MAO-B and, on the other hand, to inhibition of the uptake of dopamine. In agreement with its peculiar spectrum of pharmacological activity, deprenyl proved to be a useful adjuvant to levodopa alone or in combination with a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. In addition, a supplement of deprenyl in Parkinson's disease led to significant prolongation of the duration of the illness. This has not been observed so far with other antiparkinsonian drugs. The dopamine content of the human caudate nucleus decreases by 13% per decade over the age of 45. The hypothesis has been put forward that the significant increase of incidence of depression in the elderly, the age-dependent decline in male sexual vigour and the frequent appearance of parkinsonian symptoms in the later decades of life might be attributed to a decrease of dopamine and 'trace amines' in the brain. The possibility of countering these biochemical lesions of ageing by long-term administration of deprenyl, a selective inhibitor of MAO-B which facilitates dopaminergic and 'trace-aminergic' activity in the brain, and is a safe drug in man, is considered in detail.

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Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra zona compacta, and in other subcortical nuclei associated with a widespread occurrence of Lewy bodies. The causes of cell death in Parkinson's disease are still poorly understood, but a defect in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and enhanced oxidative stress have been proposed. We have examined 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1)-induced apoptosis in control and metallothionein-overexpressing dopaminergic neurons, with a primary objective to determine the neuroprotective potential of metallothionein against peroxynitrite-induced neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. SIN-1 induced lipid peroxidation and triggered plasma membrane blebbing. In addition, it caused DNA fragmentation, alpha-synuclein induction, and intramitochondrial accumulation of metal ions (copper, iron, zinc, and calcium), and enhanced the synthesis of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine. Furthermore, it down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, but up-regulated the expression of caspase-3 and Bax in dopaminergic (SK-N-SH) neurons. SIN-1 induced apoptosis in aging mitochondrial genome knockout cells, alpha-synuclein-transfected cells, metallothionein double-knockout cells, and caspase-3-overexpressed dopaminergic neurons. SIN-1-induced changes were attenuated with selegiline or in metallothionein-transgenic striatal fetal stem cells. SIN-1-induced oxidation of dopamine to dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde was attenuated in metallothionein-transgenic fetal stem cells and in cells transfected with a mitochondrial genome, and enhanced in aging mitochondrial genome knockout cells, in metallothionein double-knockout cells and caspase-3 gene-overexpressing dopaminergic neurons. Selegiline, melatonin, ubiquinone, and metallothionein suppressed SIN-1-induced down-regulation of a mitochondrial genome and up-regulation of caspase-3 as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The synthesis of mitochondrial 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and apoptosis-inducing factors were increased following exposure to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion or rotenone. Pretreatment with selegiline or metallothionein suppressed 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-, 6-hydroxydopamine-, and rotenone-induced increases in mitochondrial 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine accumulation. Transfection of aging mitochondrial genome knockout neurons with mitochondrial genome encoding complex-1 or melanin attenuated the SIN-1-induced increase in lipid peroxidation. SIN-1 induced the expression of alpha-synuclein, caspase-3, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, and augmented protein nitration. These effects were attenuated by metallothionein gene overexpression. These studies provide evidence that nitric oxide synthase activation and peroxynitrite ion overproduction may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, and that metallothionein gene induction may provide neuroprotection.

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Although earlier results, employing intravenous tyramine challenge, had indicated that a tricyclic antidepressant plus monoamine oxidase inhibitor drug combination might be free from the 'cheese effect', the experiments reported here, involving oral tyramine challenge during the combined therapy, showed that relaxation of a tyramine-free diet during such a drug regimen might be unsafe. Preliminary observations indicated that combined (-)-deprenyl plus nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitor therapy might lead to an unacceptable degree of orthostatic hypotension without reduction in tyramine sensitivity.

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These preliminary results suggest that selegiline administered in the subacute phase can promote cognitive functioning in stroke patients. Further studies will elucidate whether and how this enhancement can impact on functional recovery in the short and in the long term.

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Astrocytosis shows a distinct regional pattern in AD brain compared to fibrillar Aβ, suggesting that different types of astrocytes may be associated with the pathophysiological processes in AD.

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Since we last reviewed the drug treatment of Parkinson's disease in 1995, several new drugs have been licensed for its treatment, more is known about the use of levodopa plus selegiline, and new surgical techniques have been developed. Here we review these new developments and consider how they affect patient management.

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Isatin (indoledione 2,3) is an endogenous indole found in the mammalian brain, peripheral tissues, and body fluids. It exhibits many neurophysiological and neuropharmacological effects. It shares some common molecular targets with (-)-deprenyl, a neuroprotective pharmacological drug. Some isatin effects imply a possible influence of gene expression; however, no isatin-responsive genes have yet been identified.

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High profile: new activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probes have been designed that target exclusively monoamine oxidases A and B within living cells (see picture; FAD=flavin adenine dinucleotide, FMN=flavin monodinucleotide). With these probes it could be shown that the MAO inhibitor deprenyl, which is in clinical use against Parkinson's disease, shows unique protein specificity despite its covalent mechanism of action.

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Selegiline and its parent compounds were studied by X-ray diffraction. It was established that the racemates of primary and secondary amines (p-fluoro-amphetamine, methamphetamine, p-fluoro-methamphetamine) hydrochloride do not form racemic compounds but crystalline as conglomerates, at the same time tertiary amines like selegiline and p-fluoro-selegiline hydrochlorides do. The crystalline structure of five enantiomeric hydrochlorides were determined, the CPhe-C-C-N torsion angle is anti-periplanar in all cases but in p-fluoro-amphetamine where it is gauche.

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FOG is a common symptom in advanced PD. It is mainly related to disease progression and levodopa treatment.

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eldepryl generic name 2017-06-01

The results suggest that inhibition of MAO A may contribute to the intensity of withdrawal Suprax Generic Cefixime syndrome in smoking cessation.

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Selegiline decreased craving, especially during abstinence, and impaired performance on the modified Stroop test during subjects Flomax Generic ' attempts to abstain. Medication also reduced number of cigarettes smoked and smoking satisfaction ratings during the smoking sessions both before and after the brief abstinence attempt.

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Apomorphine delivered in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) induces penile erection in rats, suggesting a role of dopaminergic projection to the PVN in the control of penile erection. We assessed whether the selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase B, selegiline, could enhance the erectile activity induced by dopamine delivery in the PVN. Intracavernous and blood pressure (ICP and BP) were monitored in anesthetized rats to quantify ICP rises (number and percentage of ICP maximum/mean BP (ICPmax/BP x 100)) elicited by 10 micro g dopamine injection in the PVN after saline or 3 mg/kg i.v. selegiline (8 rats per group). The number of ICP rises (mean+/-s.d.: 4.5+/-2.9 vs 1.4+/-1.9; P=0.017) and their ICPmax/BP x 100 (49+/-8% vs 34+/-9%; P=0.015) were significantly greater upon dopamine injection in the PVN than upon vehicle. Compared to Protonix Cost saline i.v., 3 mg/kg selegiline pretreatment significantly increased the number of ICP rises induced by dopamine injection in the PVN (9.4+/-2.6 vs 4.5+/-2.9; P<0.001), without affecting their amplitude. This suggests that drugs potentiating dopaminergic responses in the central nervous system might enhance proerectile commands of supraspinal origin.

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Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency was diagnosed after determination of cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters and DNA analysis in a child with severe axial hypotonia and hypokinesia associated with dystonic and Cialis Online Reviews ballistic movements. L-dopa therapy was unsuccessful, whereas a combination with selegiline, a selective monoamine oxidase-beta inhibitor, with low-dose L-dopa markedly improved the severe clinical picture.

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Selegiline (Deprenyl, Jumex, Movergan etc.) is primarily used in the therapy of Parkinson's disease due to its neuroprotective, antidepressive and oxidative stress-preventing activities. Its prime effect is based upon the inhibition of the monoamine oxidase enzyme (MAO-B). The cofactor of this flavoenzyme is riboflavin (vitamin B2). Riboflavin, on the other hand, is an effective photosensitizer, with the capacity to promote the photodegradation of molecules (drugs, biological systems) which are otherwise stable against daylight. It has been studied whether this property of riboflavin is expressed against selegiline as well. This experiments proved that in the presence of riboflavin, both daylight and the light of daylight- Buy Nolvadex Uk lamps are sufficient to significantly decompose selegiline. The major decomposition product is methamphetamine.

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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta. Among the proposed mechanisms of dopaminergic degeneration, oxidative stress is believed to play an important role. On the other hand, L-DOPA used as the main medication in PD and overproduction of dopamine (DA) in striatal neurons could elicit toxic effects due to formation of free radicals (FRs). Adenosine, an endogenous neuromodulator was shown in various experimental models to have neuroprotective properties. In our study, we investigated the role of adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptor ligands in hydroxyl radical generation by L-DOPA in the rat striatum. The hydroxyl radical was assayed by HPLC-ED as a product of its reaction with p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PBA). Intrastriatal infusion of L-DOPA(50 microM) markedly increased dialysate level of DA and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA). An adenosine A(1) receptor agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 25-50 microM), nonselectiveA(1)/A(2A) receptor agonist 2-chloroadenosine (2-CADO, 50-100 microM), and selective A(2A) receptor agonist CGS 21680 (25-50 microM) decreased the level of 3,4-DHBA. A non-selective A(1)/A(2A) adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine (100 microM) produced similar effect on 3,4-DHBA level. At the same time, CPA and 2-CADO, but not CGS 21680 or caffeine, decreased L Evista Generic -DOPA-induced DA release. The adenosine receptor ligands alone only weakly changed extracellular DA level and did not influence hydroxyl radical production. However, they showed scavenging activity in Fenton reaction in vitro. The primary caffeine metabolite in rodents, 1,3,7-trimethyl uric acid (1,3,7-mUA) decreased both, DA synthesis and 3,4-DHBA level. Thus, paradoxically, both agonists of A(1) receptor and agonist of A(2A) receptor as well as antagonist of A(1) and A(2A) receptors (caffeine), all decreased generation of FRs. Our study suggests that a decrease in hydroxyl radical generation caused by adenosine receptor ligands results from attenuation of L-DOPA-induced DA release or from their scavenging activity.

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Monoamine oxidase inhibitors /trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine, pyrazidol, phenharmane/ belonging to the category of primary or secondary amines, in the molecule of which/ after dehydration/ formation of an azomethine bond is possible, modified the activity of membrane bound bovine brain monoamine oxidases inhibiting the deamination of serotonin and, at the same time, causing appearance of or significant increase in cadaverine--or histamine--deaminating properties. This modification was not caused either by primary amines /amphetamine, GABA/ which are not potent monoamine oxidase inhibitors or by the amines possessing strong monoamine oxidase inhibiting properties/pargylline, deprenyl, harmine/ but devoid of the potential property of forming an azomethine bond. In vivo trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine, pyrazidol or phenharmane /contrary to amphetamine/ did modify the monoamine oxidase activity in Fda Generic Cialis brain of mice inducing the deamination of histamine and decreasing its tissue concentration.

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In spite of the extensive studies performed on postmortem substantia nigra from Parkinson's disease patients, the aetiology of the disease has not yet been established. Nevertheless, these studies have demonstrated that, at the time of death, a cascade of events had been initiated that may contribute to the demise of the melanin-containing nigro-striatal dopamine neurons. These events include increased levels of iron and monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B activity, oxidative stress, inflammatory processes, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, nitric oxide synthesis, abnormal protein folding and aggregation, reduced expression of trophic factors, depletion of endogenous antioxidants such as reduced glutathione, and altered calcium homeostasis. To a large extent, the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) animal models of Parkinson's disease confirm these findings. Furthermore, neuroprotection can be afforded in these models with iron chelators, radical scavenger antioxidants, MAO-B inhibitors, glutamate antagonists, nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, calcium channel antagonists and trophic factors. Despite the success obtained with animal models, clinical neuroprotection is much more difficult to accomplish. Although the negative studies obtained with the MAO-B inhibitor selegiline (deprenyl) and the antioxidant tocopherol (vitamin E) may have resulted from an inappropriate choice of drug (selegiline) or an inadequate dose (tocopherol), the niggling problem that still remains is why these drugs, and others, do work in animals while they fail in the clinic. One reason for this may be related to the fact that in normal human brains the number of dopaminergic neurons falls by around 3-5% every decade, while in Parkinson's disease this decline is greater. Brain autopsy studies have shown that by the time the disease is identified, some 70-75% of the dopamine-containing neurons have been lost. More sensitive reliable methods and clinical correlative markers are required to discern between confoundable symptomatic effects versus a possible neuroprotective action of drugs, namely, the ability to delay or forestall disease progression by protecting or rescuing the remaining dopamine neurons or even restoring those that have been lost.A number of other possibilities for the clinical failure of potential neuroprotectants also exist. First, the animal models of Parkinson's disease may not be totally reflective of the disease and, therefore, the chemical pathologies established in the animal models may not cause, or contribute to, the progression of the disease clinically. Second, because of the series of events occurring in neurodegeneration and our ignorance about which of these factors constitutes the primary event in the pathogenic process, a single drug may not be adequate to induce neuroprotection and, as a consequence, use of a cocktail of drugs may be more appropriate. The latter concept receives support from recent complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray gene expression studies, which show the existence of a gene cascade of events occurring in the nigrostriatal pathway of MPTP, 6-OHDA and methamphetamine animal models of Parkinson's disease. Even with the advent of powerful new tools such as genomics, proteomics, brain imaging, gene replacement therapy and knockout animal models, the desired end result of neuroprotection is still beyond Aciphex Cost Comparison our current capability.

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The specific actiivty of rat heart MAO, towards both tyramine and benzylamine as substrates, was found to increase with the age of the animal, and also after administration Ventolin Generic Name of (-)-thyroxine to young male rats. Conversely, enzyme activity was decreased in animals made hypothyroid by including 2-thiouracil in their diet. However, with both age and altered thyroid status, relatively greater changes in the deamination of tyramine rather than in that of benzylamine, were obtained. Clorgyline and deprenyl, used as inhibitors of rat heart MAO, indicated that tyramine is metabolized solely by MAO-A, whereas benzylamine is a substrate for both MAO-A and -B, and also a clorgyline- and deprenyl-resistant enzymic activity. The proportional contribution of MAO-A, -B and the clorgyline-resistant enzyme towards the total benzylamine deamination in the rat heart was found to vary with the age and with altered thyroid status of the animal in such a way that selective changes in the activity of MAO-A appear to be largely responsible for the overall changes in the specific activity of rat heart MAO which occur in response to these developmental factors.

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L-Deprenyl is an irreversible monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor with a complex pharmacological profile. For instance, L-deprenyl administration to rat and mice increases cytosolic CuZn- and mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutase activities in the striatum. CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase are enzymes involved in defense against superoxide (O2.) radicals. Hence, an increase in CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase activities is suggestive of oxidative stress. The major intracellular site of O2. radicals formation is the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Several reports indicated that alterations in mitochondrial respiratory functions enhances O2. production. We observed that L-deprenyl induced a dose-dependent inhibition of oxygen (O2) consumption Zanaflex Generic 6mg (state 3) during ATP synthesis in presence of complex I (pyruvate and malate) and complex II (succinate) substrates in fresh mitochondrial preparations. D-Deprenyl produced a similar inhibitory profile whereas MDL72974, a selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, was less effective. Administration of D-deprenyl or MDL72974 to mice resulted in an increase in both striatal CuZn- and -Mn-superoxide dismutase activities. Accordingly, we propose that the impairment of mitochondrial respiratory functions which stimulates O2. formation could modulate CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase activities, through a mechanism that appears to be independent of monoamine oxidase-B inhibition.

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Motor impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) includes slowness (bradykinesia), decreased amplitude (hypokinesia), impaired rhythm and a progressive reduction in speed and amplitude during movement repetition (sequence effect). In the present study we aimed to analyse bradykinesia features in newly-diagnosed and drug-näive patients with PD. Kinematic data were compared Prograf Online with PD patients in the advanced stages of the disease and with healthy controls. We also investigated the effect of selegiline on motor impairment in early PD.

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A high yield purification scheme for monoamine oxidase A from human placental mitochondria is described. The enzyme is solubilized by a combination of treatment with phospholipase A and C and extraction with Triton X-100 and further purified by partitioning between dextran and polyethylene glycol polymers. The enzyme was obtained in 35% yield and high purity on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. This product, 90% catalytically active, showed a single major and several minor bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Further purification could be achieved by additional chromatography using Bio-Gel HTP, but concomitant loss of catalytic activity occurred (enzyme remained about 60% active). The difference extinction coefficient for flavinox--flavinred at 456 nm was 10,800 +/- 350 m-1 cm-1. A sulfhydryl to flavin ratio of 7.5 was obtained when enzyme was denatured with sodium dodecyl sulfate, reduced with 2-mercaptoethanol, and titrated with 2,2'-dipyridyl disulfide. Anaerobic titration with 0.5 eq of sodium dithionite gave rise to the red anionic flavin radical, and full reduction was observed on further addition of reagent. The Km value for kynuramine was essentially the same for mitochondria (0.12 mM) and enzyme after DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B chromatography (0.17 mM). The concentration of clorgyline and deprenyl required for 50% inactivation also remained essentially unchanged. Incubation of the enzyme with 2,2'-dipyridyl disulfide caused inactivation in a biphasic manner with apparent second-order rate constants of 1230 M-1 min-1 and 235 M-1 min-1 for the rapid and slow phase, respectively. This inactivation was largely abolished by the inclusion of the competitive inhibitor amphetamine (Ki = 20 microM) in the incubation mixture. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated a subunit molecular mass of 60-64 kDa, about 1.5-2.5 kDa higher than human liver monoamine oxidase B.