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The use of first-line cART in the Netherlands closely follows changes in guidelines, to the benefit of patients. While there was no significant improvement in mortality, newer drugs with better tolerability and simpler dosing resulted in improved immunological and virological recovery and reduced incidences of switching due to toxicity and virological failure.
among the options recommended by WHO, we estimate only three should be considered under normal circumstances. Choice among those depends on available resources and willingness to pay. Stavudine/lamivudine/nevirapine is associated with the poorest quality-adjusted survival and higher costs than zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine.
The development and widespread clinical use of coformulated abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine (ABC/3TC/ZDV) as Trizivir represented an important advance in the management of HIV-infected patients, especially those with adherence challenges. With a low pill burden, no food restrictions, limited drug-drug interactions, and a favorable resistance profile, ABC/3TC/ZDV remains an alternative option in the US Department of Health and Human Services Consensus Panel Guidelines as initial treatment in antiretroviral-naive patients. Recent data have shown ABC/3TC/ZDV to be less efficacious in suppressing and/or maintaining suppression of virologic replication compared with efavirenz-containing antiretroviral therapy. Although triple-nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (t-NRTI) combinations that do not contain a thymidine analog (ZDV or stavudine) have recently shown high virologic failure rates in clinical trials and clinical practice, t-NRTI regimens containing a thymidine analog have consistently been shown to be efficacious.
Entecavir resulted with the highest probability (31%) as the best prophylactic option on reducing the risk of HBV recurrence. Entecavir is the preferred oral NAs treatment compared to other five different prophylactic regimens in the prevention of HBV recurrence after LT.
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All children were HBV DNA+, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) /anti-hepatitis B e antibody- at start of treatment. At the end of 1 year, HBV DNA declined by 95% in all patients, and 8 of 18 (44%) had sustained undetectable HBV DNA by hybridization assay. Median pretreatment alanine aminotransferase (ALT) x1.5 upper limit of normal decreased to ALT x0.9 upper limit of normal after 1 year. One child became HBeAg-negative. YMDD mutants were detected in 11 of 17 (65%) children after 1 year of lamivudine treatment. Among children with YMDD mutant variants, 54% maintained normal ALT values and 45% had undetectable HBV DNA by hybridization assay. No adverse effects were observed.
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Use of zidovudine (ZDV) in antiretroviral therapy is limited by toxicity and twice daily (b.i.d.) dosing. Fozivudine (FZD) is a ZDV prodrug, which is activated intracellularly to ZDV-monophosphate especially in mononuclear cells but not in bone marrow cells. FZD promises improved myelotoxicity and once daily (o.d.) dosing.
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Determine if suppression of hepatitis B virus replication with lamivudine would decrease fibrogenesis as measured by immunohistochemical markers.
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For 7 patients, suppression of plasma HIV RNA to <50 copies/mL was maintained for 60-84 weeks. Four patients with adequate samples had no evidence for an increase in plasma viremia for up to 72 weeks, by use of an assay with a limit of detection of <1 copy/mL. The lack of rebound viremia may be the result of the persistence of efavirenz in plasma on day 7 of the no-therapy period, as was detected in 7 of 7 patients. There was no significant change in CD4(+) T cell counts or serum hepatic transaminase or lipid levels.