Emergence of drug resistance following HIV prophylaxis has an important impact on ART program.
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We investigated the durability of virological response after lamivudine (LAM) discontinuation in LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with complete virological response after LAM-adefovir (ADV) combination therapy. We enrolled 58 patients switched to ADV monotherapy with undetectable viral loads (<12 IU/ml) and normal alanine aminotransferase levels after ADV add-on combination treatment for at least 6 months in LAM-resistant CHB patients. Virologic relapse was defined as HBV DNA detection at more than 20 IU/ml by quantitative polymerase chain reaction determined on two consecutive measurements. During median 40.9 months of follow-up (range 11.5-79.0 months), seven (12.1%) patients experienced virological relapse. The cumulative rate of virological relapse at 3 and 5 years was 5.5% and 22.4%, respectively. Two patients had elevated alanine aminotransferase during virological relapse. These seven patients with virological relapse had undetectable HBV DNA after switching to tenofovir therapy. In our study, switching to ADV monotherapy resulted in sustained HBV DNA suppression in 87.9% of the patients during median 40.9 months follow-up. This adapting step-down strategy, switching from combination therapy to monotherapy in virologically suppressed CHB patients with stable liver disease, may reduce the cost burden and the risk of potentially harmful effects of combination therapy. J. Med. Virol. 89:85-90, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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The protease purified from earthworm Eisenia fetida was found to function as a fibronectinase (FNase). The cleavage sites on FN by the FNase were at R and K, exhibiting a trypsin alkaline serine-like function. The earthworm fibronectinase (EFNase) cleaved FN at four sites, R259, R1005, K1557 and R2039, among which the digested fragments at R259, K1557 and R2039 were related to the virus-binding activity as reported. The serum FN was significantly decreased when the earthworm fibronectinase was orally administrated to rats. The ELISA results showed that the secretion of HBeAg from HepG2.2.15 cells was significantly inhibited in the presence of the FNase.
Our study shows that studying HBV resistance in naïve patients should not be recommended in the routine laboratory setting, for the time being.
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Incomplete adherence is the main cause of antiretroviral therapy failure during initial combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). A switch to a protease inhibitor-sparing cART may be useful when a patient does not tolerate a first protease inhibitor-containing cART regimen.
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In Mozambique during 2004-2007 numbers of adult patients (≥15 years old) enrolled on antiretroviral therapy (ART) increased about 16-fold, from <5,000 to 79,500. All ART patients were eligible for co-trimoxazole. ART program outcomes, and determinants of outcomes, have not yet been reported.
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A 51-year-old white man with HIV was initiated on antiretroviral therapy with didanosine 250 mg/day, tenofovir 300 mg/day, lamivudine 300 mg/day, stavudine 60 mg/day, and efavirenz 600 mg/day. Didanosine was prescribed at a reduced dosage due to the known interaction with tenofovir. Despite this dosage adjustment, the patient developed acute pancreatitis 10 weeks after antiretrovirals were initiated. Pancreatitis resolved spontaneously after antiretroviral discontinuation.
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Overall, 22 patients (37.3 %) showed seronegative conversion of HBsAg for a median 8 months after treatment (range 1-15 months). The seroclearance rate was significantly higher in group N (n = 20, 52.6 %) than in group L (n = 2, 9.5 %) (p < 0.000). The time to seroconversion did not differ between group L (7 months, range 5-16) and group N (7 months, range 1-15) (p = 0.428). Subgroup analysis showed that the HBsAg seroconversion rate was much higher for patients given combined ivHBIG and new NAs (15/26 patients, 58.0 %) than the others (p = 0.006).
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HIV-type-1-positive male participants were randomized to receive tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and lamivudine, with either fosamprenavir (FPV)/ritonavir or lopinavir (LPV)/ritonavir twice daily. A hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp was performed at baseline and at 2 weeks after commencing treatment. The homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was also calculated at these time points. Changes in lipids and lipoprotein subfractions (by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) were assessed. A pharmacokinetic assessment was undertaken at week 2.
In Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 377, antiretroviral therapy-experienced children were randomized to 4 treatment arms that included different combinations of stavudine, lamivudine (3TC), nevirapine (Nvp), nelfinavir (Nfv), and ritonavir (Rtv). Previous treatment with zidovudine (Zdv), didanosine (ddI), or zalcitabine (ddC) was acceptable. Drug resistance mutations were assessed before study treatment (baseline) and at virologic failure. Zdv, ddI, and ddC mutations were detected frequently at baseline but were not associated with virologic failure. Children with drug resistance mutations at baseline had greater reductions in virus load over time than did children who did not. Nvp and 3TC mutations were detected frequently at virologic failure, and Nvp mutations were more common among children receiving 3-drug versus 4-drug Nvp-containing regimens. Children who were maintained on their study regimen after virologic failure accumulated additional Nvp and 3TC mutations plus Rtv and Nfv mutations. However, Rtv and Nfv mutations were detected at unexpectedly low rates.
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The results have strong clinical implications, due to the important role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of HIV infection. Macrophages are the major source of HIV at extralymphoid tissue levels, particularly in the central nervous system, where the blood-brain barrier strongly limits the penetration of antiviral drugs. For these reasons, only drugs, like stavudine and zidovudine, provided with good anti-HIV activity in macrophages, and reasonable barrier penetration have substantial chances to be effective in the central nervous system, and thus affect virus replication in a sanctuary where HIV hides and replicates out of the control of the immune system.
Hepatitis B virus replication is very sensitive to lamivudine. A single amino acid change in human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase is responsible for high-level resistance to this compound. Duck hepatitis B virus mutants were created bearing the analogous amino acid change in the duck hepatitis B virus polymerase. Viral DNA production was reduced 92% for the wild-type virus at 2 micrograms of lamivudine per ml, while the mutants required 40 micrograms of lamivudine per ml to inhibit replication by greater than 80%.