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To investigate how the fluid shear stress and raloxifene alone or in combination affect the proliferation of murine pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1.
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Selective estrogen receptor modulators represent an alternative approach to the use of estrogen replacement therapy or hormone replacement therapy for decreasing postmenopausal bone loss, as well as for reducing the incidence of serious cardiovascular disease in this population. Of particular interest is raloxifene, a benzothiophene compound, which binds with high affinity to the estrogen receptor and produces effects similar to estrogen on the skeleton and cardiovascular system but behaves as a complete estrogen antagonist in the uterus and the breast. The pharmacologic profile of raloxifene, a discussion of a possible mechanism of action, and the potential role of this drug in women's postmenopausal health are the subjects of this review.
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The principle of "regression to the mean" predicts that patients with unusual responses to treatment might represent outliers who are likely to have more typical responses if treatment is continued without change.
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We explored psychometric properties of the Osteoporosis Assessment Questionnaire 2.0 in terms of reliability, validity, and responsiveness with generic, clinical, demographic, and preference-based data collected from a population of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
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Our results showed that raloxifene improves platelet metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women through an increase of the bioavailability of platelet NO by a reduction of iNOS and the beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. This mechanism of action of raloxifene on platelet activity may explain some cardiovascular protective effects of this selective oestrogen receptor modulator.
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Osteoporosis is a significant health problem in postmenopausal women. Consequently, new and effective therapies are being sought to preserve bone mass and prevent osteoporosis in this population of women. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of lasofoxifene with raloxifene and placebo on indices of bone health in postmenopausal women.
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There is still a strong need for additional diversity and new chemical scaffolds to allow for the exploration of improved tissue selectivity and finding better selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Using a de novo design technology a diphenylnaphthyl propylene scaffold, exemplified by (E)-9b, with ER antagonist activity has been generated. It was prepared by alkylating 1-[4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-(2-chloroethoxy)phenyl]-1-propanone under metal halogen exchange conditions with 1-iodo-6-methoxy-naphthalene. Following dehydration and cleavage of the methoxy groups, (E)-9b was formed by displacement of the chloro group with pyrrolidine. (E)-9b binding to ER generated calculated K(i) values of 3.7 nM for hER(alpha) and 72 nM for hER(beta). The antagonism of (E)-9b was demonstrated in cell transfection assays using the ERE from the vitA2 promotor and the natural ER-responsive pS2 promotor. With increasing concentrations of (E)-9b, the E(2)-dependent response was efficiently inhibited demonstrating that (E)-9b could function as an anti-estrogen in these assays. Interestingly, ER(alpha) activity was inhibited even below basal levels suggesting that ligand-independent activity of ER(alpha) was also inhibited. Computational docking studies suggest that the placement of the hydroxyl group on the naphthalene group may not be optimal and we are currently exploring additional analogues.
Subjects were randomized to 17beta-estradiol (2 mg) + norethisterone acetate (1 mg; E(2)-NETA) or raloxifene hCL (60 mg) for a period of 6 months.
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BIBX1382 was an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor under clinical investigation for treatment of cancer. This candidate possessed an attractive preclinical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion profile, yet failed in clinical studies due in part to poor oral exposure, resulting from extensive metabolism by aldehyde oxidase (AO). In vitro metabolism studies were performed in liver cytosol and cryopreserved hepatocytes from multiple species. In addition, a pharmacokinetic study was performed in cynomolgus monkey for comparison with the reported human pharmacokinetics of BIBX1382. Estimated hepatic clearance of BIBX1382 in rhesus (42 ml/min per kg) and cynomolgus monkey (43 ml/min per kg) liver cytosol was comparable to human (≥93% of liver blood flow). Metabolite identification after incubation of BIBX1382 in liver cytosol fortified with the AO inhibitor raloxifene confirmed that AO is involved in the formation of the predominant metabolite (BIBU1476, M1) in cynomolgus monkey. After intravenous and oral administration of BIBX1382 to cynomolgus monkeys, high plasma clearance (118 ml/min per kg) and low oral exposure (C(max) = 12.7 nM and 6% oral bioavailability) was observed, with the exposure of M1 exceeding BIBX1382 after oral dosing. This pharmacokinetic profile compared favorably with the human clinical data of BIBX1382 (plasma clearance 25-55 ml/min per kg and 5% oral bioavailability). Thus, it appears that cynomolgus monkey represents a suitable surrogate for the observed human AO metabolism of BIBX1382. To circumvent clinical failures due to uncharacterized metabolism by AO, in vitro studies in the appropriate subcellular fraction, followed by pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic studies in the appropriately characterized surrogate species should be conducted for substrates of AO.
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(1) Alendronic acid at a dose of 5 mg/day is now licensed in France for primary prevention of postmenopausal fractures. (2) The clinical file is relatively bulky and methodologically adequate, but there are no comparisons with combined hormone replacement therapy or with raloxifen. (3) Three trials have shown that 5 mg/day alendronic acid slows postmenopausal bone loss. However, this effect disappears on treatment cessation, and mineral bone density is only one risk factor for postmenopausal fractures. (4) A placebo-controlled trial of primary prevention involving more than 4,000 patients showed no reduction in the risk of fracture after 4 years of treatment with alendronic acid (5 mg/day for 2 years, then 10 mg/day). (5) Alendronic acid increases the risk of oesophageal ulceration, necessitating strict precautions during ingestion.
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Secondary data analysis.