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Raloxifene is a second-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator that reduces the incidence of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Exemestane, a steroidal aromatase inhibitor, decreases contralateral new breast cancers in postmenopausal women when taken in the adjuvant setting. Preclinical evidence suggests a rationale for coadministration of these agents to achieve complete estrogen blockade.
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Overall, there were no significant differences in adjusted mean cognitive scores between the two treatment groups across visits. There were significant time effects across the three visits for some of the cognitive measures. Similar results were obtained for the subset of women with true baseline measures.
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In a nutshell, the developed system was found efficient, safe and stable and seems promising for transdermal use.
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Fourteen of the 16 patients (88%) were classified as positive for VEGF expression prior to raloxifene treatment, while only 5 (31%) were classified as positive following treatment (P < 0.007).
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The medians (95% confidence interval) of the area under the curves (AUC) were 35.1 (25.8, 74) and 20.5 (16.8, 28.0) h ng ml(-1) per mg kg(-1), P < 0.01, and of the clearances (CL/F) were 28.5 (13.5, 38.8) and 48.8 (35.8, 59.4) l h(-1) kg(-1), P < 0.01, in renally impaired and healthy subjects, respectively. 95% Confidence intervals on the differences for AUC and CL/F were 6.5-44.1 and -35.1 to -7.9, respectively.
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In the whole group, raloxifene treatment was associated with an increase in serum sex hormones, that is, total testosterone (+13%, p < 0.01), bioavailable testosterone (+11%, p = 0.02), total estradiol (+11%, p < 0.002), and bioavailable estradiol (+11%, p = 0.035), and with a decrease in serum osteocalcin (-13%, p < 0.05) and serum total alkaline phosphatase (-6%, p < 0.05). Other biochemical markers of bone turnover remained unchanged. Using a logistic regression model to predict changes in urinary deoxypyridoline, we calculated thresholds for total (101.8 pM) and bioavailable (4.79 pM) estradiol, as well as for total (19.4 nM) and bioavailable (0.35 nM) testosterone. Raloxifene treatment was associated with an increase in serum estradiol and decrease in biochemical markers of bone turnover in men with estradiol values below these estradiol thresholds, without any significant change in subjects with values above them. Similarly, raloxifene treatment was associated with an increase in serum testosterone and a decrease in biochemical markers of bone turnover in those with baseline testosterone values below the testosterone thresholds. The association between antiresorptive effects of raloxifene and low sex hormone levels was more pronounced for estradiol than for testosterone.
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To evaluate the net effect of raloxifene on overall quality of life and sexual function in postmenopausal women.
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The resistance indices of the ovarian blood flow were assessed in 130 women after menopause who were randomly assigned to receive either 60 mg of raloxifene, a continuous combined estrogen-progestin tablet daily, or neither treatment for 24 months.
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Numerous treatments have been shown to significantly reduce the risk of osteoporosis-related fracture. Treating patients with osteoporosis therapies after an initial osteoporotic fracture can reduce the risk of future fractures 40% to 60%, resulting in significant cost reductions. But despite the availability of effective management strategies, osteoporosis management is still suboptimal. Barriers to providing quality care include knowledge, competency, and performance on the part of healthcare professionals, and knowledge and adherence to therapy on the part of patients. Addressing these barriers and treating patients appropriately can help address the potential health and economic consequences of osteoporosis.
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The effects of raloxifene on GH secretion were assessed by obtaining 24-h GH profiles and studying the response of GH to various stimuli before and after treatment with raloxifene. Serum IGF-I was measured before and after raloxifene treatment.
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Raloxifene reduces breast cancer risk in women with osteoporosis, and both tamoxifen and raloxifene prevent breast cancer in high-risk women. However, in vitro, raloxifene does not share the pro-estrogenic effects of tamoxifen on the endometrium. Randomized trials of these agents have provided limited information about endometrial cancer risk in the general population. We sought to compare endometrial cancer risks associated with raloxifene, tamoxifen, and nonusers of a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) in the general population and characterize the endometrial tumors occurring in these groups.