There was no difference in the parameters representing blocking of viral production (epsilon = 93%, 95% and 86%, respectively), turnover of free virus (half-life of 16 h, 10 h and 12 h, respectively) and turnover of infected hepatocytes (half-life of 9 days, 7 days and 4 days, respectively) between the lamivudine, lamivudine-famciclovir and lamivudine-ganciclovir treatment groups.
Famciclovir has been shown to have potent and selective activity against herpesviruses. The possibility of a pharmacokinetic interaction between the anti-viral agent, famciclovir and allopurinol has been investigated in twelve healthy male volunteers following a single oral dose of famciclovir (500 mg) in the presence and absence of steady-state levels of allopurinol (300 mg). Similarly, the pharmacokinetic profiles of allopurinol and oxypurinol prior to and following a single dose of famciclovir were compared. Mean values of Cmax, AUC and terminal-phase half-life for penciclovir following administration of famciclovir alone at 3.3 micrograms.ml-1, 8.8 micrograms.h.ml-1 and 2.1 h, respectively were unchanged by co-administration of allopurinol. Similarly, mean urinary recovery and renal clearance values of penciclovir following famciclovir alone were 56.8% and 27 l.h-1, and when given with allopurinol 59.7% and 27.5 l.h-1, respectively. No evidence of accumulation of the inactive precursor to penciclovir, BRL 42359, was noted as a result of co-administration of the two drugs. Mean steady-state Cmax, AUC and terminal-phase half-life values for allopurinol after co-administration of allopurinol with famciclovir also appeared unchanged from values obtained after dosing of allopurinol alone, at 2.12 micrograms.ml-1, 5.73 micrograms.h.ml-1 and 1.38 h, respectively. Mean Cmax and AUC values of the active metabolite of allopurinol, oxypurinol were 11.2 micrograms.ml-1 and 96.0 micrograms.h.ml-1, respectively, and these were also unaltered by co-administration of famciclovir with allopurinol, with values of 10.6 micrograms/ml and 89.8 micrograms.h/ml, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Two-stage treatment was given to 100 patients suffering from GH with severe regular recurrences. One-stage treatment included famvir in combination with interferon (viferon) or interferon inductors (amixin, cycloferon) and antioxidants. Stage two treatment consisted of vaccine therapy of patients who failed prophylactic standard vaccination by allergometric technique.
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Equivalence was defined prospectively and famciclovir was equivalent to acyclovir in preventing new lesion formation: new lesions occurred in 16.7% and 13.3% of patients, respectively [difference, 3.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI), -4.8-11.5]. The groups were comparable in time to complete healing (median 7 days for both groups; hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.79-1.29; P = 0.95), cessation of viral shedding (median of 2 days [hazard ratio = 0.93; 95% C.I. 0.68, 1.27; p = 0.64]), and loss of lesion-associated symptoms (median 4 days; hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.75-1.30; P = 0.93). Similar numbers in each group withdrew because of treatment failure. There were no differences between groups in the incidence of adverse events.
The treatment decreased the duration of outbreaks in 87 % of participants and decreased the mean duration of outbreaks from 8.77 days and 6.7 days in the control groups to 2.87 days in the treatment group (P < 0.001, both groups). All participants reported no adverse experiences.
The anti-herpesvirus activity of (1'S,2'R)-9-[[1',2'-bis(hydroxymethyl)cycloprop-1'-yl]methyl]guani ne (A-5021) was evaluated in murine cells and in several murine models of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Against HSV type 1 (HSV-1), A-5021 was 15-30- and 30-60-fold more active, and against HSV type 2 (HSV-2), it was 2- and 8-fold more active than acyclovir and penciclovir in Balb/3T3 cells, respectively. When antiviral compounds were administered orally (once daily) to mice infected intraperitoneally with HSV-1 (Tomioka), A-5021 was more active than acyclovir or famciclovir in spite of its relatively low oral bioavailability. A-5021 was as active as penciclovir when the antiviral compounds were given intravenously (three times daily) to mice infected intraperitoneally with HSV-2 (186). In mice with a cutaneous HSV-1 (KOS) infection, three times daily oral therapy with A-5021 at 25 mg/kg per day produced more significant reduction in severity of skin lesions than equivalent treatment with acyclovir or famciclovir. In mice infected intracerebrally with HSV-1 (Tomioka), complete survival was observed in the group treated intravenously with A-5021 at 25 mg/kg per day (three times daily), while more than 50% of mice died in the groups treated intravenously with acyclovir of up to 100 mg/kg per day (three times daily). Moreover, A-5021 was more effective than acyclovir in clearing infectious virus from the brain. These findings demonstrate that A-5021 has potent anti-HSV activity in several murine models.
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Genital herpes is a chronic infection characterized by periodic reactivation. It can produce symptomatic disease in the host although asymptomatic viral excretion can also occur. It is currently the main cause of genital ulceration and an important public health problem that has substantial clinical, psychological, and economic repercussions. This review analyzes the currently available therapeutic options and regimens, which are based mainly on systemic use of antiviral agents such as aciclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir. In addition, special emphasis is placed on the prevention and management of this infection in specific situations, such as pregnant, pediatric, and immunocompromised patients.
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Data regarding antiviral activity were included if accepted and widely used methods were followed. Clinical trials in which a comparison with acyclovir or placebo was performed were given the highest priority.
A series of 2-amino-9-(3-hydroxymethyl-4-alkoxycarbonyloxybut-1-yl)purines (4-10) and 2-amino-9-(2-(2-oxo-1,3-dioxan-5-yl)ethyl)purine (1) were synthesized as potential prodrugs of penciclovir and evaluated for their oral penciclovir bioavailability in mice and rats. Treatment of 2-(2-benzyloxyethyl)propane-1,3-diol (11) with 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole in THF followed by hydrogenolytic removal of the benzyl group of the resulting cyclic carbonate 12 gave 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3-dioxan-2-one (13). Mesylation of the alcohol 13 and then a coupling reaction of the resulting mesylate 14 with 2-amino-6-chloropurine using anhydrous Cs2CO3 in DMF afforded 2-amino-6-chloro-9-(2-(2-oxo-1,3-dioxan-5-yl)ethyl)purine (16) after purification by flash column chromatography on silica gel using EtOAc/MeCN/Et3N as eluent. Hydrogenation of the 6-chloro cyclic carbonate 16 followed by a ring-opening reaction of the 6-deoxy cyclic carbonate 1 in a mixture of an appropriate alcohol and CHCl3 using activated SiO2 as a Lewis acid afforded the corresponding alkyl monocarbonate derivatives 3-10 in fair to good yields. Of the prodrugs tested in mice, the isopropyl monocarbonate 6 achieved the highest mean urinary recovery of penciclovir (53%), followed in order by the propyl monocarbonate 5 (51%), the isopentyl monocarbonate 10 (51%), the ethyl monocarbonate 4 (50%), and famciclovir (48%). In rats, the methyl monocarbonate 3, 4, 6, the n-butyl monocarbonate 7, and 10 (39-41%) showed levels of mean urinary recovery of penciclovir similar to that from famciclovir (40%). The alkyl monocarbonates 4-10 were found to be quite stable in the aqueous buffer solutions, and among them, 6 was the most stable with the half-lives (t1/2) of 88, >200, 61, and 26 days at pH 1.2, 6.0, 7.4, and 8.0, respectively. In addition, 6 was highly soluble in H2O (138.8 mg/mL, 20 degrees C).
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Famciclovir is an antiviral with efficacy and safety comparable to aciclovir, but famciclovir's more favorable pharmacokinetic profile enables a less frequent dosing regimen. Future trials will likely determine famciclovir's role in the suppression of HBV.
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Acyclovir was the first antiviral drug approved for the treatment of herpes zoster. Several new antiviral agents have since been introduced, one of which is famciclovir. The pharmacokinetics of famciclovir allow a more convenient dosing schedule than the schedule used with acyclovir. Famciclovir is metabolized in the liver, but the P450 cytochrome system is not involved. Both acyclovir and famciclovir accelerate cutaneous healing, but studies suggest that famciclovir may reduce the severity of postherpetic neuralgia when compared with placebo. Famciclovir is currently approved only for use in immunocompetent patients, but clinical trials involving immunocompromised patients are in progress.
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The current evidence demonstrates that long-term use of oral antiviral agents can prevent HSL, but the clinical benefit is small. We did not find evidence of an increased risk of adverse events. On the other hand, the evidence on topical antiviral agents and other interventions either showed no efficacy or could not confirm their efficacy in preventing HSL.