A new route to obtain chitosan derivatives containing cyclodextrin moieties as pendant groups was developed. The chitosan microspheres, obtained through crosslinking with glutaraldehyde of an acetic acid solution of chitosan, in an organic suspension medium, were reacted with chloroacyl cyclodextrins in organic basic solvents. The acyl cyclodextrin moieties are linked to the chitosan microspheres through C-N bonds, with the elimination of HCl; higher amounts of acyl cyclodextrin are linked to the microspheres with a smaller crosslinking degree. The chitosan-cyclodextrin conjugates retain higher amounts of bioactive substances (nalidixic acid, piroxicam) or of p-nitrophenol (model substance) than their parent chitosan supports, both by ionic forces and by the formation of inclusion complexes in the cyclodextrin inner cavities. After these preliminary studies, one can appreciate that the cyclodextrin-chitosan conjugates could be used as supports for chromatographic separations or controlled release drug systems.
The authors in a previous research verified the effect of administration of three non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (piroxicam, naproxen, ketoprofen) on the glutathione levels in various organs of rat. On the basis of these researches, the authors study the effect of the same anti-inflammatory drugs on glutathione levels in rat brain, dissected in order to analyze separately the cortex, cerebellum and the remaining part of the brain. The obtained results show that the distribution of the three drugs is not homogeneous in the studied areas and that these three drugs act differently on glutathione levels. These facts let us suppose that piroxicam, naproxen and ketoprofen produce toxic events that are different according to the brain areas we studied.
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Arthroscopy is often performed in an out-patient department or as one-day surgery. Opioids often used as postoperative analgesics may have unwanted side effects that may postpone the patient's discharge from hospital. This study was designed to evaluate a substitute for the most frequently used opioid pethidine. For pain relief, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs are recommended, but they offer a limited choice for parenteral administration. We used a new agent (Neodolpasse) based on diclophenac and orphenadine, and compared its efficacy with piroxicam and placebo.
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Laser flash spectroscopy was used to examine the title compounds. Piroxicam has a triplet transient with a maximum near 450 and a lifetime of 3-21 microseconds depending on the solvent. The relative quantum yield is highly solvent dependent being maximum in toluene and greater than or equal to 14 fold lower in hydrogen bonding solvents. There is another transient which is assigned as a proton transferred ground state transient. Some permanent photoproduct also appears to be produced. Benoxaprofen also has a triplet transient with a maximum near 420 nm with a lifetime of 65 microseconds to greater than or equal to 250 microseconds depending on the solvent. In this case, the relative quantum yield only slightly varies among polar and hydrogen bonding solvents. This is in marked contrast to published data on the fluorescence yield. Some permanent photoproduct appears to be produced.
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Tenoxicam did not influence orthodontic movement of the upper canines. It was effective for pain control and did not present any preemptive analgesic effect.
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Mild erythema and edema at the extravasation site developed within 1 to 6 days after extravasation in the 3 dogs that received dexrazoxane within 2 hours after extravasation. Extensive tissue necrosis occurred in the dog treated 48 hours after suspected extravasation.
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To compare the efficacy and frequency of adverse experiences of misoprostol and sucralfate in the prevention of gastric ulcers in patients receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy.
After eight dogs had been evaluated in each treatment group, a significant difference in remission rate was noted (Fisher's Exact test, P < 0.004). Tumor responses in the cisplatin/piroxicam group included two complete remissions (CR), four partial remissions (PR), two stable disease (SD), and no progressive disease (PD). Tumor responses to cisplatin alone in eight dogs were no CR, no PR, four SD, and four PD. Six additional dogs were treated with cisplatin/piroxicam, and in total 10 of 14 dogs had remission (two CR, eight PR). Renal toxicity of cisplatin/ piroxicam was frequent and dose limiting.
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Data collected from more than 1,800 patients with rheumatoid arthritis or degenerative joint disease in Phase 3 clinical studies of isoxicam (Maxicam) indicated that the drug is well tolerated on both a short-term and a long-term basis. The most common type of adverse reaction to all medications (isoxicam, aspirin, and indomethacin) was gastrointestinal: 22.6 percent with isoxicam, at a dosage greater than 200 mg per day; 14.2 percent with isoxicam at 200 mg per day; 31.6 percent with buffered aspirin at 3,600 to 4,800 mg per day; 24.6 percent with indomethacin at 150 mg per day; and 7.2 percent with placebo. The incidence of tinnitus and deafness was significantly greater with buffered aspirin than with isoxicam, and the number of patients who had at least one episode of dizziness, vertigo, or headache was significantly greater with indomethacin than with isoxicam. In open-label, long-term studies, in which approximately 70 percent of the patients participated, the types and frequencies of adverse effects were similar to those observed with isoxicam during the controlled studies. The overall frequency of withdrawal for adverse reactions during the long-term studies was 11.5 percent, similar to that during the controlled studies. At the recommended dosage for isoxicam of 200 mg per day, the incidence of gastrointestinal ulcers was 0.81 percent, well within the range expected among arthritic patients receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. From the data collected in Phase 3 clinical studies, it may be concluded that isoxicam is better tolerated than either aspirin or indomethacin and should not create unusual problems in the short-term or long-term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or degenerative joint disease.
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A molecularly imprinted polymer-based potentiometric sensor was fabricated for determination of 2-aminopyridine (2-AP). The electroactive component is the 2-APH(+) . To form this specie the determination is carried out in a bufferic solution at pH 4.5 in which 2-AP is prevalently monoprotonated. Under these conditions, the membrane potential, increases with 2-AP concentration over a wide range of concentration (5 µM to 100 mM) with a near Nernstian response of 54.1 mV/decade and detection limit of 2.0 µM. The response time is less than 5 s and the sensor can be used for more than 3 months without any significant divergence in response. The selectivity coefficients of the proposed sensor were evaluated and exhibited good selectivity to 2-AP with respect to the electrode based on a non-imprinted polymer. The utility of the sensor was successfully tested by examining of 2-AP in piroxicam (PX) as a potential impurity.