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Various methods and analytical techniques for the preparation and identification of pharmaceutical co-crystals have been applied, but these operations require considerable time for the screening and preparation of co-crystals. In this review, a powerful method that combines Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy with thermal analysis is introduced. This unique one-step real-time differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)-FTIR microspectroscopic approach has been successfully applied to simultaneously and directly screen and detect pharmaceutical co-crystal formation in systems such as indomethacin-saccharin, indomethacin-nicotinamide, carbamazepine-glutaric-acid, metaxalone-succinic-acid and piroxicam-saccharin. This powerful one-step DSC-FTIR combined technique provides an easy and direct method for one-step screening and qualitative detection of co-crystal formation in real time.
According to the aim of the simultaneous and sequential inhibition of key enzymes of the arachidonic acid cascade, combinations of inhibitors of the phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase (COX) and of lipoxygenases (LOX) were administered to rats with carrageenin edema and adjuvant arthritis, respectively. While the COX inhibitors diclofenac-Na and acetylsalicylic acid in combination with PLA2 and LOX inhibitors mostly gave overadditive antiinflammatory effects in the carrageenin edema, phenylbutazone in combination at most displayed additivity. Admixture of ascorbic acid led to subadditive effects. In the adjuvant arthritic rat, the combined administration of diclofenac-Na and dexamethasone yielded additive effects, only. The same result is valid for the combination of piroxicam and a LOX inhibitor in this model. Results are discussed with respect to the mode of action of substances as well as to the model peculiarities.
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A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were included in this study. Animals were equally and randomly divided into three groups as follows: Group I (Controls), Group II (Injection with 10 mg/kg/day of tenoxicam) and Group III (Injection with 20 mg/kg/day of tenoxicam). At the end of the study, some liver tissue samples were taken and kept in neutral formalin for histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Liver tissue samples were embedded in paraffin blocks after routine tissue preparation procedures, and were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical stain. Liver samples taken for biochemical analysis were washed with physiological saline. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and superoxide dismutase activity were measured in the obtained supernatants.
Sixty adult patients 26 and 70 years who underwent laparoscopic renal and adrenal surgery were randomized into three groups with 20 patients each: Group 1 received local 20 mL of levobupivacaine 0.25% infiltration to the trocar incisions before skin closure. In group 2, 1g paracetamol was given to the patients intravenously 30 minutes before extubation and 5 g paracetamol was given intravenously in the 24 postoperative period. In group 3, 8 mg lornoxicam i.v. was given 30 minutes before extubation and 8 mg lornoxicam i.v. was given in the 24 postoperative period. In the postoperative period, pain scores, cumulative tramadol, and additional pethidine consumption were evaluated.
In 1,695 subjects (2,514 hips) and 635 subjects (874 knees) ages 55 years and older from the Rotterdam Study, radiographs of the hip and knee at baseline and followup (mean followup time 6.6 years) were evaluated. Radiologic OA (ROA) progression was defined as a minimum increase of 1 in the Kellgren/Lawrence grade or incident joint replacement at followup. The associations between the different types of NSAIDs and progression of ROA were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis.
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Arachidonic acid (AA) injected into hindpaws of Lewis rats produces a severe edematous response. Treatment with corticosteroids (dexamethasone, prednisolone), dual inhibitors of arachidonate metabolism (phenidone, SK & F 86002), anti-histamine/serotonin agents (chlorpheniramine, cyproheptadine) and a gold compound (auranofin) inhibited AA-induced edema. In contrast, administration of high doses of cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, piroxicam, naproxen, ibuprofen, meclofenamic acid and tiflamizole) did not affect AA-induced hind paw edema. The involvement of lipoxygenase products and mast cell mediators in the edematous response to arachidonic acid render this model potentially useful for studying antiinflammatory agents with a mechanism of action different from that of cyclooxygenase inhibitors.
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The risk of upper GI bleeding is significantly higher in elderly acute vs chronic users of NSAIDs or regular-dose aspirin. In acute NSAID or aspirin users, co-treatment with proton pump inhibitors, but not with H2-blockers, may reduce the risk of bleeding compared with non-users.
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Patch tests on pigmented lesions were reactive in 21 patients (40.4%), 20 of those to NSAID (nimesulide, piroxicam and etoricoxib) and 1 to an antihistamine (cetirizine). All patch tests using other drugs were negative, even under conditions of high clinical suspicion. Oral rechallenge allowed confirmation of drug imputability in 5 of 31 test-negative cases. Cross reactivity was frequently observed between piroxicam and other oxicams, and between different antihistamines.
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Preventing non-adherence and treating adherence failure are important to consider in designing community-based clinical trials. The approach and methods for managing adherence are vital. This paper describes a practical and theoretically-based strategy for managing adherence in a small cancer prevention trial with subjects (n = 40) taking a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, piroxicam. Average daily pill intake adherence was exceptionally high (97.4%) as measured by self-report calendar. Thus, the generalized adherence enhancement approach used in this study may have been a related factor, although statistical model-testing was not possible in this small trial. The generalized intervention took into account factors such as the potential barriers and benefits of being in the study, self-efficacy and satisfaction with the participant/staff relationship. These and other theoretical variables were incorporated into an overall adherence strategy that is discussed.