Recent studies show the interesting efficacy of different drug combinations for the spontaneous expulsion of distal ureteral stones. We performed a randomized, prospective study to assess and compare the efficacy of 3 drugs as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral calculi.
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We carried out a 12-week, single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 220 patients. Patients treated with 0.2 mg tamsulosin daily without other lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia medication for more than 3 months and refractory to this treatment were enrolled. We defined "refractory" as an International Prostate Symptom Score of 13 or greater and a maximum flow rate of 15 or under despite medication. Patients with a surgical history related to lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia or a postvoid residual of 150 mL or greater were excluded. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to the 0.4 mg group (two tablets of 0.2 mg tamsulosin once daily) or the 0.2 mg group (one tablet of 0.2 mg tamsulosin and one tablet of placebo once daily). International Prostate Symptom Score, maximum flow rate, blood pressure, heart rate, and adverse events were compared between the two groups at 4 weeks and 12 weeks.
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The DNA tetranucleotides, extended versions of GCA at the 3'-end or 5'-end, were used as chiral selectors for the chiral discrimination of atenolol, DOPA, tamsulosin, valacyclovir and zolmitriptan. Chiral discrimination was achieved by investigating the collision-induced dissociation spectra of the [X+Y-2H](2-) ion generated by electrospraying a solution mixture of tetranucleotide (X) and R- or S-analyte drug (Y). The relative abundances of the precursor ion and the product ion, resulting from the loss of drug, were considered for measuring the degree of chiral discrimination. Among all the tetranucleotides studied, AGCA showed the highest chiral discrimination. The present study emphasised the position of an adenine base in the tetranucleotide in chiral discrimination. The suitability of the method for the measurement of optical purity was also demonstrated in the case of zolmitriptan.
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We assessed the efficacy of using an alpha-1A-specific blocker for improving the success rate in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for lower ureteral stones.
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The relaxing effect of the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors on vascular smooth muscle has attracted much attention, especially in persons with cardiovascular disease. The results of early studies showed that sildenafil slightly reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressures and has no effect on heart rate, while being safe and well tolerated. Studies also indicate that sildenafil does not contribute to the development of myocardial infarction or ischemia. Similar benign effects on hemodynamics and cardiac events have also been demonstrated for tadalafil and vardenafil. None of the PDE5 inhibitors adversely affects total exercise time or time to ischemia during exercise testing in men with stable angina. It is key to avoid concomitant administration of nitrates with any of the PDE5 inhibitors, because this combination can cause increased vasodilation and a subsequent drop in blood pressure. Sildenafil has an alpha-blocker precaution; tadalafil is contraindicated with alpha blockers except for 0.4 mg tamsulosin; vardenafil is contraindicated with alpha blockers.
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In this single-institution ER experience, 40% of patients with symptomatic ureterolithiasis were treated with MET on discharge from the ER. Our data also show that only patients referred to a urologist received a metabolic evaluation. This is notable given that the vast majority of those evaluated were found to have a correctable abnormality.
The results of this prospective randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of tamsulosin after ESWL for a single proximal ureteral stone suggest that tamsulosin helps in the earlier clearance of stone fragments and reduces the expulsion period of stone fragments after ESWL.
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The emergence of urinary retention (UR), specifically acute urinary retention (AUR), has been a concern when treating men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with antimuscarinic drugs.
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The TUNA procedure compares favorably to combination medical therapy for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia on a cost basis. alpha-Blocker monotherapy is less costly than TUNA while 5alpha-reductase inhibitor monotherapy is approximately equivalent to TUNA for 5 years. The TUNA procedure is less expensive than combination medical management for 5 years, with a break-even point at approximately 2 years 7 months.
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Patients taking an AM in combination with an alpha blocker showed greater persistence with alpha blocker treatment over a 1 year period. When an AM is combined with an alpha blocker in patients with LUTS/BPH, the additional medication burden does not have a negative impact on persistence and may even improve it.