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We conducted a retrospective study by using Michigan Medicaid data for patients who were aged <21 years and had 2 years of continuous enrollment and at least 1 prescription for ziprasidone in the first year the medication was available. The main outcome measures were proportion of children prescribed ziprasidone as their first antipsychotic, with evidence of treatment resistance, and by a psychiatrist.
To determine whether SGA initiation was associated with an increased risk for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. Secondary analyses examined the risk associated with multiple-drug regimens, including stimulants and antidepressants, as well as individual SGAs.
The superiority of atypical antipsychotics (also known as second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) over typical antipsychotics (first generation antipsychotics (FGAs)) for negative symptom control in schizophrenic patients is widely debated. The objective of this study was to characterize the time course of the scores of the 3 subscales (positive, negative, general) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) after treatment of patients with antipsychotics, and to compare the control of negative symptom by SGAs versus a FGA (haloperidol) using pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modelling. In addition, to obtain insight in the relationship between the clinical efficacy and the in vitro and in vivo receptor pharmacology profiles, the D2 and 5-HT2A receptor occupancy levels of antipsychotics were related to the effective concentrations.
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Patients taking atypical antipsychotics are frequented by serious metabolic (eg, hyperglycemia, obesity, and diabetes) and cardiac effects. Surprisingly, chronic treatment also appears to lower free fatty acids (FFAs). This finding is paradoxical because insulin resistance is typically associated with elevated not lower FFAs. How atypical antipsychotics bring about these converse changes in plasma glucose and FFAs is unknown. Chronic treatment with olanzapine, a prototypical, side effect prone atypical antipsychotic, lowered FFA in Sprague-Dawley rats. Olanzapine also lowered plasma FFA acutely, concomitantly impairing in vivo lipolysis and robustly elevating whole-body lipid oxidation. Increased lipid oxidation was evident from accelerated losses of triglycerides after food deprivation or lipid challenge, elevated FFA uptake into most peripheral tissues (∼2-fold) except heart, rises in long-chain 3-hydroxylated acyl-carnitines observed in diabetes, and rapid suppression of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) during the dark cycle. Normal rises in RER following refeeding, a sign of metabolic flexibility, were severely blunted by olanzapine. Increased lipid oxidation in muscle could be explained by ∼50% lower concentrations of the negative cytoplasmic regulator of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, malonyl-CoA. This was associated with loss of anapleurotic metabolites and citric acid cycle precursors of malonyl-CoA synthesis rather than adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase activation or direct ACC1/2 inhibition. The ability of antipsychotics to lower dark cycle RER in mice corresponded to their propensities to cause metabolic side effects. Our studies indicate that lipocentric mechanisms or altered intermediary metabolism could underlie the FFA lowering and hyperglycemia (Randle cycle) as well as some of the other side effects of atypical antipsychotics, thereby suggesting strategies for alleviating them.
To determine the efficacy and safety of different antipsychotic drugs in the management of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in the acute phase. To formulate evidence-based recommendations on the antipsychotic (AP) drug management strategies for the treatment of the adult diagnosed with schizophrenia in the acute phase.
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Mixed depression reflects the occurrence of a major depressive episode with subsyndromal manic symptoms. Not recognized in DSM-IV, it is included in the proposed changes for DSM-5. Observational and cross-sectional studies have suggested that mixed depression is present in up to one-half of major depressive episodes, whether in MDD or bipolar disorder. Based on observational studies, antidepressants appear to be less effective, and neuroleptics more effective, in mixed than pure depression (major depressive episodes with no manic symptoms). In this report, we examine the specific manic symptoms that are most present in mixed depression, especially as they correlate with prospectively assessed treatment response.
Genetic association studies, including a large meta-analysis, report association of regulator of G protein signaling 4 (RGS4) with schizophrenia in the context of heterogeneity. The central role of RGS4 in regulating signaling via Gi/o coupled neurotransmitter receptors led us to hypothesize that there may be RGS4 genotypes predictive of specific disease phenotypes and antipsychotic treatment responses.
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To review the literature on use of antipsychotics to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD).
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Development or exacerbation of diabetes mellitus is associated with antipsychotic use in bipolar patients. Metabolic complications are a major issue in patients receiving antipsychotic therapy. Thus, the propensity of an antipsychotic to induce diabetes should be a consideration when selecting an agent for patients with bipolar disorder.
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Study showed these eco-friendly natural gums can be considered as promising SR polymers.
Aripiprazole produced increases in [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding to rat hippocampal membranes. Its potency (pEC(50) = 7.2) was similar to that of ziprasidone (7.1) and greater than that of 5-HT (6.7) and buspirone (6.4), a 5-HT(1A)-receptor partial agonist, whereas its intrinsic activity was similar to that of ziprasidone and buspirone. The stimulatory effect of aripiprazole was blocked by WAY-100635, a 5-HT(1A)-receptor antagonist. In in vivo electrophysiology studies, aripiprazole produced a dose-related reduction in the firing rate of 5-HT-containing dorsal raphe neurons in rats, which was both prevented and reversed by WAY-100635 administration. Aripiprazole showed a high affinity for human 5-HT(1A) receptors (K (i) = 4.2 nM) using parietal cortex membrane preparations. In membranes from cells expressing human recombinant receptors, aripiprazole bound with high affinity to 5-HT(2A) receptors (K (i) = 3.4 nM), moderate affinity to 5-HT(2C) (K (i) = 15 nM) and 5-HT(7) (K (i) = 39 nM) receptors, and low affinity to 5-HT(6) receptors (K (i) = 214 nM) and 5-HT transporter (K (i) = 98 nM). In addition, aripiprazole potently blocked 5-HT(2A)-receptor-mediated increases in intracellular Ca(2+) levels in a rat pituitary cell line (IC(50) = 11 nM).
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The results of FTIR, SEM, DSC and PXRD studies confirmed the formation of phospholipid complex. Solubility studies showed there was a higher solubility in water for ZIP-PLC than monohydrate ziprasidoe. The in vitro release rate of ziprasidone from the ZIP-PLC sustained-release pellet exhibited controlled-release characteristics with over 95% total release in 12 h. Pharmacokinetic studies in beagle dogs showed ziprasidone with prolong actions, and no food effect was achieved simultaneously in ZIP-PLC sustained-release pellet compared with Zeldox capsule.