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CEB significantly decreased the severity of gastric damage formation induced by the combination of several gastroprotective models (HCl/ethanol, indomethacin/bethanecol, absolute ethanol, stress and pylorus ligature). But, unlike CEB, the BI did not exert gastroprotective effect. The gastroprotective action of CEB involved antisecretory action, augmentation of gastric mucus (48%) and participation of endogenous sulfhydryl compounds that increase efficacy of barrier mucosa against injurious agents. CEB also presents effective healing action in chronic gastric disease (1.90+/-0.55 vs. 6.86+/-0.46 mm2)in the control) and its action mechanisms consisted of increasing the PGE2 (40%) and somatostatin levels (269%) while decreasing the gastrin level in rat plasma (79%).
Hemicrania continua (HC) is a rare primary headache syndrome, characterized by unilateral pain and an absolute response to indometacin. Since the term was first coined in 1984, more than 100 cases have been described worldwide. Most recently, detailed case series that provide more detailed information concerning the sometimes complex clinical presentation of HC have been reported. Functional imaging studies suggest a unique pattern of subcortical involvement in HC: contralateral to the pain posterior hypothalamic region, ipsilateral dorsal pons and ipsilateral ventral midbrain, which, along with the particular effect of indometacin, probably justifies its classification as a unique entity. Increasing the awareness of this primary headache form among clinicians will aid in its diagnosis while further work is being undertaken to characterize the syndrome.
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To test the hypothesis that infants who are just being introduced to enteral feedings will advance to full enteral nutrition at a faster rate if they receive "trophic" (15 mL/kg/d) enteral feedings while receiving indomethacin or ibuprofen treatment for patent ductus arteriosus.
The ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) plays pivotal roles during ovulation and postovulatory wound repair. In this paper we describe the proliferative activity of the OSE through the estrous cycle in adult cycling rats, by immunohistochemical detection of DNA-incorporated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Immunohistochemical detection of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and progesterone receptor was also performed. The cycle of the OSE consists of a proliferative phase (that lasts for two consecutive estrous cycles) and a quiescent phase of variable duration. Cyclic changes in the OSE were related to the underlying ovarian structure. OSE areas covering growing follicles entered into the proliferative phase during the transition from proestrus to estrus, with the appearance of fast-growing class 1 follicles, destined to ovulate at the end of the current estrous cycle. A labeling index (after pulse-labeling BrdU treatment) of about 7% was maintained throughout the estrous cycle in parallel to follicle growth. Cumulative BrdU-labeling (after daily BrdU treatment) indicated that about 1/3 of the total OSE cell proliferation was related to follicle growth. Following ovulation, OSE cells covering newly-formed corpora lutea showed a labeling index of about 50% that decreased through metestrus and diestrus (about 13% and 3%, respectively), returning to basal levels by proestrus. Cumulative BrdU-labeling indicated that about 2/3 of the total proliferative activity was related to ovulation repair/luteinization. The remaining OSE covering ovarian stroma or structurally regressing corpora lutea of previous cycles showed negligible BrdU labeling. The equivalent proliferative activity found in the OSE covering newly-formed corpora lutea in indomethacin-treated rats lacking rupture of the OSE at the apex, demonstrated that ovulation-triggered proliferation was not dependent on the loss of integrity of the OSE at the ovulation site. OSE cells expressed ERalpha throughout the cycle, but no differential expression was found between proliferating and quiescent OSE areas. On the contrary, OSE cells did not express PR at any time of the cycle. These data indicate the existence of a cycle of the OSE, related to the cyclic changes in the underlying ovarian structure and strongly suggest that the proliferative activity of the OSE is regulated by local microenvironmental rather than by systemic factors.
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One thousand one hundred forty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 and 2 pediatric patients scheduled for BMT.
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The present study was conducted to investigate the possible gastroprotective effect of sildenafil citrate, a selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-specific phosphodiesterase, against indomethacin-induced gastric damage in rats. Further, the study was extended to investigate some possible mechanisms underlying this effect.
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The pharmaceutical compound indomethacin is not totally removed in wastewater treatment plants, whose effluents flow into aquatic environments; concentrations in the 0.1-100ng/L range are commonly found in surface waters, and its fate is unknown. Here, biological, photochemical and thermal degradation assays were conducted under stress and non-stress conditions to estimate its degradation rate in river water and establish its degradation products over time. The results revealed that direct sunlight irradiation promoted the complete degradation of indomethacin (2μg/L) in less than 6hr, but indomethacin was detected over a period of 4months when water was kept under the natural day-night cycle and the exposure to sunlight was partially limited, as occurs inside a body of water. The biological degradation in water was negligible, while the hydrolysis at pH7.8 was slow. Residues were monitored by ultra-pressure liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight/mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction, and six degradation products were found; their structures were proposed based on the molecular formulae and fragmentation observed in high-resolution tandem mass spectra. 4-Chlorobenzoic and 2-acetamido-5-methoxybenzoic acids were the long-term transformation products, persisting for at least 30weeks in water kept under non-stress conditions. Furthermore, the degradation in the presence of sediment was also monitored over time, with some differences being noted. The adsorption coefficients of indomethacin and degradation products on river sediment were calculated; long-term degradation products did not have significant adsorption to sediment.
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The prolactin family hormones regulate rat vascular tone, selectively promoting either relaxation or contraction of vascular smooth muscle via activation of either growth hormone receptors or prolactin receptors within the endothelium.
Due to gastric adaptation and small bowel damage, repeated administration of NSAID to experimental animals may not be an adequate method for establishment of the chronic gastric inflammation model.