lanoxin dose range
This study assesses the role of prednisone and endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactivity (EDLI) in the increased Na+ pump activity in renal allograft patients. Red blood cell (RBC) Na+ transport activities and plasma concentrations of EDLI were measured in ten controls and ten renal allograft recipients (5 hypertensive) while undergoing treatment with cyclosporin, prednisone, and azathioprine, and also after prednisone withdrawal. As compared to controls, prednisone-treated patients showed an increased Na+ pump activity (0.323/h vs 0.571, P less than 0.05) and decreased RBC Na+ concentration (6.69 mM vs 4.99, P less than 0.05). They also showed a decrease in the activity of cotransport, countertransport, and passive Na+ efflux (0.02/h vs 0.005, P less than 0.05; 207 mumol/l vs 35, P less than 0.05; 0.02/h vs 0.005 respectively, P less than 0.05). After prednisone withdrawal, normotensive and hypertensive patients showed RBC Na+ transport system activities and RBC Na+ concentration similar to those of controls. EDLI was not detected in controls or in patients. We conclude that prednisone treatment increased the Na+ pump activity, and decreased the RBC Na+ concentration. Moreover, it induced a decrease in the activity of secondary RBC Na+ transport systems. This study provides no evidence for a modulatory role of EDLI in the RBC Na+ pump activity. Neither parameters can be presumed to be a marker of hypertension in these patients.
Using Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as subject, to explore the characteristics of immune response in immunological microenvironment at the tumor site and its effect on anti-tumor immunity.
lanoxin drug study
A prospective analysis of the samples from 100 requests to monitor patients being treated with digoxin. The samples were processed in AxSYM® and Architect®. The techniques were assessed using the linear regression coefficient, determination coefficient, mean absolute error, mean squared prediction error and the Bland-Altman method.
The epidemiology and etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF) are reviewed. CHF affects as many as 4 million Americans and is one of the most prevalent causes of death in hospitalized patients. Major risk factors for developing CHF include advanced age, male sex, hypertension, coronary artery disease, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and rheumatic heart disease. Heart failure results from decreased intrinsic myocardial contractility caused by one or more of three changes: (1) altered adrenergic nervous system function, (2) impaired delivery of calcium to contractile elements in the heart, and (3) reduced myosin-ATPase activity in the myocardium. The disease is progressive, and no intervention has yet been found to stop it effectively. CHF is diagnosed based on subjective signs and symptoms and objective assessment using auscultation, ECG, chest roentgenogram, laboratory tests, and noninvasive and invasive tests. Treatment of CHF begins with restriction of physical activity and sodium intake. Pharmacologic interventions start with either digitalis glycosides or thiazide diuretics; both may be used concomitantly as the disease progresses. Current studies are focusing on the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors as first-line agents for CHF. When CHF worsens, loop diuretics are substituted for or added to the thiazide diuretics, and vasodilators are added to reduce the workload on the heart. Other inotropic agents, including the new bipyridine derivatives, may also be used. In patients not responding to these and other aggressive therapeutic interventions, cardiac transplantation is the only option. Despite advances in management of CHF, little improvement in overall survival has been demonstrated, and no intervention has stopped or reversed the progression of CHF.
lanoxin drug guide
I compared the feeding responses of five species ofPeromyscus mice (aztecus, polionotus, melanotis, leucopus, andmaniculatus) to three bitter-tasting cardenolides (ouabain, digoxin, and digitoxin) that differ greatly in lipophilic character.Peromyscus, like other muroid rodents, are unusual in that they can ingest relatively large amounts of cardenolides without adverse physiologic effects. In experiment 1, I determined avoidance thresholds for the three cardenolides with 48 hr, two-choice tests. Mice exhibited large interspecific differences in avoidance threshold, and the interspecific ranking of the thresholds (maniculatus=leucopus >melanotis >polionotus >aztecus) was the same for each of the cardenolides. In experiment 2, I reevaluated the avoidance thresholds, but this time monitored the pattern of intake (i.e., bout lengths) during initial feeding encounters with cardenolidelaced diets. For each cardenolide, mice were subjected to three tests. In test 1, they received a control diet; in test 2, a diet containing the cardenolide at a concentration 1 log, unit below the avoidance threshold (as determined in experiment 1); and in test 3, a diet containing the cardenolide at the avoidance threshold concentration. Results were similar across all species and cardenolide types: Bout lengths in tests 1 and 2 were statistically equal, whereas those in test 3 were significantly shorter than those in test 1. The rapid rejection of cardenolide-laced diets in test 3 is consistent with a preingestive (i.e., gustatory) mechanism underlying the avoidance thresholds. I conclude (1) thatPeromyscus species differ substantially in taste sensitivity to cardenolides and that these differences may influence each species' respective ability to eat cardenolide-laced insects; and (2) that a species' relative taste sensitivity to one cardenolide predicts its sensitivity to other cardenolides.
lanoxin therapeutic dose
The organization of eukaryotic chromosomes into euchromatin and heterochromatin represents an enigmatic aspect of genome evolution. Constitutive heterochromatin is a basic, yet still poorly understood component of eukaryotic genomes and its molecular characterization by means of standard genomic approaches is intrinsically difficult. Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes do not seem to be particularly useful to map heterochromatin sequences because the typical features of heterochromatin, organized as it is into a chromocenter, limit cytogenetic analysis. In contrast, constitutive heterochromatin has been well-defined at the cytological level in mitotic chromosomes of neuroblasts and has been subdivided into several bands with differential staining properties. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) probes that carry large genomic portions defined by sequence annotation has yielded a "revolution" in the field of cytogenetics because it has allowed the mapping of multiple genes at once, thus rendering constitutive heterochromatin amenable to easy and fast cytogenetics analyses. Indeed, BAC-based FISH approaches on Drosophila mitotic chromosomes have made it possible to correlate genomic sequences to their cytogenetic location, aiming to build an integrated map of the pericentric heterochromatin. This chapter presents our standard protocols for BAC-based FISH, aimed at mapping large chromosomal regions of mitotic heterochromatin in Drosophila melanogaster.
lanoxin 30 mg
Survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) from ventricular fibrillation (VF) is poor and dependent on a rapid emergency response system. Improvements in emergent early response have resulted in a higher percentage of patients surviving to admission. However, the admission variables that predict both short- and long-term survival in a region with high discharge survival following OHCA require further study in order to identify survivors at subsequent highest risk.
lanoxin dosage range
The disposition of flecainide appeared to be influenced by the CYP3A5*3 and possibly the CYP1A2*1F polymorphisms, particularly in subjects with CYP2D6 variant alleles.
lanoxin tablets dosage
Hospitalized elderly patients taking digitoxin had a lower rate of toxicity than those taking digoxin.
lanoxin drug group
Overall, 212 patients (27.28%) received digoxin as the only heart control strategy, 184 received beta-blockers (23.68%), 58 (7.46%) were administered both, and 323 (41.57%) received none of these drugs. Digoxin was not associated with all-cause mortality (estimated hazard ratio=1.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-2.60; P=.2), admission due to any cause (estimated hazard ratio=1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.710-1.498; P=.8), or admission due to cardiovascular causes (estimated hazard ratio=1.193; 95% confidence interval, 0.725-1.965; P=.4). No association was found between digoxin use and all-cause mortality, admission due to any cause, or admission due to cardiovascular causes in patients without heart failure. There was no interaction between digoxin use and sex in all-cause mortality or in survival free of admission due to any cause. However, an association was found between sex and admission due to cardiovascular causes.
Prompted by animal studies reporting the accumulation of digitalis-glycosides in ocular tissues, we investigated whether measurement of digoxin levels in human ocular tissues can improve the postmortem diagnosis of lethal digoxin intoxication. Digoxin was measured in the vitreous humor and choroid-retina of patients who had received in-patient treatment with digoxin prior to death (therapeutic group) and in a single case of suicidal intoxication. The results were compared with the digoxin levels in the femoral vein blood, myocardium, kidney and liver, and evaluated in light of the medical history of each patient. In the therapeutic group the mean digoxin level was higher in the choroid-retina than in other tissues and body fluids. The range of variation in levels in the choroid-retina following therapeutic doses was comparable to that in the other tissues. An extremely high level of digoxin was present in the choroid-retina in the case of suicidal intoxication. In all cases, levels in the vitreous humor were very low compared to those in the choroid-retina. Hence, it is unlikely that significant distortion of choroid-retinal levels occurs due to postmortem diffusion of digoxin into the vitreous body. Our results indicate that measurement of digoxin levels in the choroid-retina can aid the postmortem diagnosis of lethal digoxin intoxication.