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Postconditioning enables cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury either by application of short, repetitive ischemic periods or by pharmacological intervention prior to reperfusion. Pharmacological postconditioning has been described for phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors when the substances were applied as a permanent infusion. For clinical purposes, application of a bolus is more convenient. In a rat heart in situ model of ischemia reperfusion vardenafil or sildenafil were applied as a bolus prior to reperfusion. Cardioprotective effects were found over a broad dosage range. In accordance with current hypotheses on pharmacological postconditioning signaling, the protective effect was mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C pathway. Interestingly, the extent of protection was independent of the concentration applied for both substances. Full protection comparable to ischemic postconditioning was reached with half-maximal human equivalence dose. In contrast, mean arterial pressure dropped upon bolus application in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, the current study extends previous findings obtained in a permanent infusion model to bolus application. This is an important step toward clinical application of pharmacological postconditioning with sildenafil and vardenafil, especially because the beneficial effects were proven for concentrations with reduced hemodynamic side effects compared to the dosage applied for erectile dysfunction treatment.
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Of 107 retrieved articles, 12 were included in the present meta-analysis: 7 on PDE5-Is versus placebo, with 3214 men, and 5 on the combination of PDE5-Is with α1-adrenergic blockers versus α1-adrenergic blockers alone, with 216 men. Median follow-up of all RCTs was 12 wk. Combining the results of those trials, the use of PDE5-Is alone was associated with a significant improvement of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score (+5.5; p<0.0001) and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) (-2.8; p<0.0001) but not the maximum flow rate (Q(max)) (-0.00; p=not significant) at the end of the study as compared with placebo. The association of PDE5-Is and α1-adrenergic blockers improved the IIEF score (+3.6; p<0.0001), IPSS score (-1.8; p = 0.05), and Q(max) (+1.5; p<0.0001) at the end of the study as compared with α-blockers alone.
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PDE5 represent first line ED therapy only for SCI patients, though treatment results through meta-analysis were not possible. Encouraging results are reported for Parkinson's and MS patients. PDE5 use for other CND patients is limited for various reasons, such as ED and concomitant libido impairment caused by depression and/or sexual endocrinology dysfunctions, and because PDE5 may cause a worsening of neurological illness. Medical centers staffed by health professionals able to counsel patients on the possible use of PDE5 are needed.
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Randomised controlled trials, in which treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors was compared to control, in diabetic patients with erectile dysfunction.
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The North American Pivotal Trial was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of vardenafil in males with erectile dysfunction (ED).
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At the end of treatment group A showed an increment of 2 points in the IIEF5; group B showed an increment of 4 points; group C, the group which was administered all the treatments, showed an increment of 5 points, and group D, treated with placebo, showed no increment in the IIEF5.
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There have been numerous publications in the past 2 years regarding routine dosing of PDE5I for three major urological indications; penile rehabilitation, stuttering priapism, and management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Evidence from basic science investigations has indicated that daily dose PDE5I may improve erectile function and exert a number of beneficial tissue effects on the penis. Unfortunately, data from human series of routine dose PDE5I for penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy are conflicting, with the two largest studies showing no benefit to daily dose therapy in the post-radical prostatectomy and the general ED populations. PDE5I are generally helpful at reducing symptoms of LUTS, particularly when given in conjunction with alpha blockers. Routine dosing of PDE5I has also been utilized successfully for management of stuttering ischemic priapism and several other medical indications.
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Treatment with nebivolol (1 μM) significantly potentiated sildenafil-, tadalafil- and vardenafil-induced relaxations of HCC and vasodilations of HPRA from both NEND and DMED. Enhancement of relaxant capacity by nebivolol resulted in reversion of the impairment of PDE5 inhibition-induced responses in DMED and it was accompanied by enhancing the ability of PDE5 inhibitors to increase cGMP in HCC restoring reduced cGMP levelsin HCC from DMED.
We examined electronic pharmacy and medical records for males with back pain in a large group model health maintenance organization during 2004. Relevant prescriptions were considered for 6 months before and after the index visit.
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we suggest that PDE5-i enhances LCSF, as the mean INSL3 concentration was significantly greater after PDE5-i administration than before, within groups A and B. This enhancement in LCSF might contribute to the increase in sperm concentration and sperm motility after administration of PDE5-i.