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Ethyl acetate extract of guggul known as guggulipid was prepared and administered to rats. Animals were divided into 9 groups, consisting 6 rats, each receiving different treatments per orally for 8 weeks. Control group rats received normal control diet while rest of the other groups animals were fed high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. Cerebral ischemia was induced for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 22 h. Locomotor activity and grip strength tests were performed immediately after 24 h of reperfusion followed by biochemical estimations and histopathology.
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Statins reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular disease in millions of people worldwide. Recent pharmacovigilance data has suggested that people taking statins have an increased risk of psychiatric adverse events such as amnesia and anxiety. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of statin-induced amnesia through animal models of memory and learning. We conducted extracellular field recordings of synaptic transmission in area CA1 of hippocampal slices to examine the effects of acute cholesterol lowering with lipid lowering drugs. We also assessed the effect of six weeks of simvastatin (2mg/kg/d) and atorvastatin (1mg/kg/d) treatment using the Morris water maze. Long Term Potentiation (LTP) was significantly diminished in the presence of 3µM atorvastatin or simvastatin and by the cholesterol sequestering agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD). The effects were reversed in the MBCD but not the statin treated slices by the addition of cholesterol. In the water maze, statin treatment did not cause any deficits in the first five days of reference memory testing, but statin treated guinea pigs preformed significantly worse than control animals in a working memory test. The deficits observed in our experiments in water maze performance and hippocampal LTP are suggestive of statin induced changes in hippocampal plasticity. The effects on LTP are independent of cholesterol regulation, and occur at concentrations that may be relevant to clinical use. Our results may help to explain some of the behavioural changes reported in some people after beginning statin treatment.
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The long half-life of atorvastatin and fenofibrate makes them suitable for alternate day therapy. Hence, we aimed to study the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of alternate day therapy with atorvastatin and fenofibrate combination in mixed dyslipidemia.
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AVA alone in the therapeutic scheme show no effect on survival, but the prophylactic scheme employing AVA associated with MQ, rather than MQ alone, led to a significant delay in mouse death and had an effect on the onset of CM symptoms and on the level of parasitaemia. Histopathological findings show a correlation between brain lesions and CM onset. A neuronal anti-apoptotic effect of AVA in the AVA + MQ combination was not shown.
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There is mounting evidence to suggest that chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) plays an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. A naturally occurring variant of the CCR5 gene CCR532, exists at allele frequencies of typically 10% in European populations and results in a nonfunctional CCR5 receptor.
Of 19 342 hypertensive patients (aged 40-79 years with at least three other cardiovascular risk factors) randomised to one of two antihypertensive regimens in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial, 10,305 with nonfasting total cholesterol concentrations 6.5 mmol/L or less were randomly assigned additional atorvastatin 10 mg or placebo. These patients formed the lipid-lowering arm of the study. We planned follow-up for an average of 5 years, the primary endpoint being non-fatal myocardial infarction and fatal CHD. Data were analysed by intention to treat.
This study confirms an independent and cumulative effect of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia on endothelial function and inflammation, suggesting oxidative stress as a common mediator of such an effect. Short-term treatment with atorvastatin and irbesartan may counterbalance this phenomenon; the combination of the 2 compounds is most effective.
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In insulin resistant, dyslipidaemic, obese men, ATV improves VLDL-TG metabolism by increasing VLDL-TG FCR. The addition of 4 g/day ω-3 FAEE to statin therapy provides further TG-lowering by lowering VLDL-TG PR.
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A total of 32 Westar rats was divided into 4 groups: normoxic controls (Group A), hypoxic controls (Group B), hypoxia plus atorvastatin [10 mg/(kg.d)] group(Group C), and hypoxia plus the vehicle of atorvastatin (Group D). Rats for hypoxia treatment were maintained under the condition of 10% FiO2 6 h/d for 4 weeks. At the end of 4 weeks, rats were anesthetized and the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) was measured by right heart catheterization. The ratios of arteriole wall thickness to vascular external diameter (WT%), and vascular area to total vascular area (WA%) were measured by a computerized image analyzer. RhoA and phos-MYPT-1 expression in the pulmonary artery were determined by Western blot.