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Visfatin was found expressed in cardiomyocytes as well as cardiac fibroblasts, and there was no significant difference at the mRNA and protein levels of visfatin. Ang II treatment induced the increased expression of visfatin and brain natriuretic peptide in a dose- and time-dependent manner in cardiomyocytes, and pretreatment with AT1-R antagonist telmisartan completely blocked Ang II-induced visfatin expression increasement. The increased visfatin expression was also blocked by the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway inhibitor AG490.
Clinical trials in hypertensive patients comparing ACEI and ARB with other drugs generally showed no difference in the primary cardiovascular outcome (United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Group, Captopril Prevention Project, Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension 2, Japan Multicenter Investigation for Cardiovascular Diseases-B Randomized Trial, Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial, Second Australian National Blood Pressure Study Group, Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-Term Use Evaluation). Where the primary, or major secondary, cardiovascular end-point favors one of the treatment arms, it was always the arm with the lower achieved blood pressure that saw the better clinical result as in Losartan Intervention For Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension Study, Captopril Prevention Project, Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial, and Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-Term Use Evaluation. Trials comparing ACEI or ARB against placebo in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events have not showed a consistent result; cardiovascular outcomes were reduced in Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation, European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events with Perindopril in Stable Coronary Artery Disease, and the Jikei Heart Study, but were not significantly reduced in Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study, Comparison of Arnlodipine vs Enalapril to Limit Occurrences of Thrombosis Trial, Prevention of Events with ACEIs Trial, Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACE-Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease Trial, and Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes Trial. In the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial, combining ACEIs with ARBs in high-risk patients did not reduce cardiovascular or renal outcomes compared with ACEI monotherapy alone. This absence of a reduction in cardiovascular outcome from the ACEI and ARB combination arm is further evidence suggesting that these drugs do not have any special cardiovascular protective effect. This objective review thus shows that the rennin-angiotensin antagonists do not have special cardiovascular protective properties.
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Dual contrast MEMRI-DEMRI was performed on weeks 1, 2, and 4 following initiation of telmisartan treatment in 24 left anterior descendent artery ligated diabetic mice. The MRI images were analyzed for core infarct, peri-infarct, left ventricular end-diastolic, end-systolic volumes, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and real-time PCR were used for ex vivo analysis of the myocardium. Telmisartan vs. control groups demonstrated significantly improved LVEF at weeks 1, 2, and 4, respectively (33 ± 7 %*** vs. 19 ± 5 %, 29 ± 3 %*** vs. 22 ± 4 %, and 31 ± 2 %*** vs 18 ± 6 %, ***p < 0.001). The control group demonstrated significant differences in the scar volume measured by MEMRI and DEMRI, demonstrating peri-infarct injury. Telmisartan group significantly salvaged the peri-infarct injury. The myocardial effects were validated by TEM, which confirmed the presence of the injured but viable cardiomyocyte morphology in the peri-infarct region and by flow cytometry of venous blood, which demonstrated significantly increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs).
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Data were taken from the telmisartan ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) clinical programme. Eleven clinical trials that randomized mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients to treatment with telmisartan 40/80 mg, losartan 50 mg, valsartan 80/160 mg, ramipril 10 mg, amlodipine 5 mg monotherapy, or with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5/25 mg, were included. Treatment duration ranged from 4 to 14 weeks. The smoothness index was calculated according to the published formula.
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Steviol glucuronide (SVG) is the major metabolite derived from steviol, the aglycone of stevioside and rebaudioside A. After the ingestion of stevioside and rebaudioside A, SVG is formed and excreted into the urine in humans. In the present study, transporter mediated efflux and uptake of SVG was investigated in order to understand molecular mechanisms underlying its renal clearance. Results showed that SVG was not a substrate of efflux transporters BCRP, MRP2, MATE1 or P-gp. In contrast, OAT3 played a predominant role in the uptake of SVG in comparison to OATP1B1, OATP1B3, or OATP2B1. Quercetin, telmisartan, diclofenac, and mulberrin displayed a relatively strong inhibition against OAT3 mediated uptake of SVG with IC50 values of 1.8, 2.9, 8.0, and 10.0 μM, respectively. Because OAT3 is a major uptake transporter in the kidney, inhibition of OAT3 activity may alter SVG's renal clearance by drugs and natural compounds that are used concomitantly with stevia leaf extracts.
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One hundred sixteen patients were divided into 2 age- and sex-matched treatment groups (58 men, 58 women; mean [SD] age, 52.5  years). All patients were in good general health at baseline; had achieved adequate glycemic control with diet and oral hypoglycemic agents; were taking antihypercholesterolemic drugs; and had no evidence of macroangiopathy, microalbuminuria, or neuropathy. There were significant reductions from baseline in seated trough SBP after 12 months of treatment with both telmisartan and nifedipine GITS (from 139  to 132  mm Hg and from 140  to 130  mm Hg, respectively; both, P < 0.01). No change in BMI or glucose metabolism was observed with either treatment. After 12 months, there were significant improvements in concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with telmisartan (-9% and -11.5%, respectively; both, P < 0.01) compared with nifedipine GITS (-2% and -1.5%).
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Post hoc observational analysis of a multicenter trial involving 20,330 patients (age ≥50 years) with recent non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke; patients were recruited from 695 centers in 35 countries from September 2003 through July 2006 and followed up for 2.5 years (follow-up ended on February 8, 2008). Patients were categorized based on their mean SBP level: very low-normal (<120 mm Hg), low-normal (120-<130 mm Hg), high-normal (130-<140 mm Hg), high (140-<150 mm Hg), and very high (≥150 mm Hg).
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With support of mEDC, 1333 patients were recruited, and 1037 patients of them successfully completed all visits during 2 months. The average time was needed around 53 minutes for 141 questions of all visits per patient. Nearly all the interviewees were satisfied with the features of smooth manipulation, user-friendly interface, real-time data transfer, procedure control, patient screening, central randomization, blinded drug allocation, visit organization, automatic data check and real-time remote monitoring. The average satisfaction score was 9.2 (10 as full mark). All the investigators and CRAs expressed their expectation of using the app again in the future. The senior data manager evaluated the mEDC and found it safe in data transferring and storage. Very rare occasion of unstable wireless internet access was complained by investigators.
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Patients with grade 2 or 3 hypertension may require high-dose combination therapy to achieve blood pressure (BP) targets in a timely manner.
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GP age, practice location, accreditation status, patient bulk-billing status and hours worked were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with use of advertising software. We found no significant differences, either before or after adjustment for these confounders, in the prescribing rate of Lipitor (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.90; P = 0.26); Micardis (AOR, 0.98; P = 0.91); Mobic (AOR, 1.02; P = 0.89); Norvasc (AOR, 1.02; P = 0.91); Natrilix (AOR, 0.80; P = 0.32); or Zanidip (AOR, 0.88; P = 0.47). GPs using advertising software prescribed Nexium significantly less often than those not using advertising software (AOR, 0.78; P = 0.02). When all advertised products were combined and compared with products that were not advertised, no difference in the overall prescribing behaviour was demonstrated (AOR, 0.96; P = 0.42).
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The 1-year use of telmisartan improved LV hypertrophy, regional LV myocardial contraction and relaxation, and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with HT. Our results support cardio- and arterioprotective benefits from continuous long-term telmisartan monotherapy, and combined analysis of tissue Doppler imaging and carotid ultrasonography may be a useful tool for understanding ventriculoarterial coupling in patients with HT.
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Telmisartan, a nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist, is selectively distributed to liver. In the present study, we have characterized the contribution of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) isoforms to the hepatic uptake of telmisartan by isolated rat hepatocytes, human cryopreserved hepatocytes, and human transporter-expressing cells. Because it is difficult to evaluate the transport activity of telmisartan because of its extensive adsorption to cells and culture materials, we performed the uptake study in the presence of human serum albumin. The saturable uptake of telmisartan into isolated rat hepatocytes took place in a Na(+)-independent manner and was inhibited by pravastatin, taurocholate, and digoxin, which are Oatp substrates and inhibitors, but not by organic cation, tetraethylammonium, indicating the involvement of Oatp isoforms in its uptake into rat hepatocytes. To identify which human OATP transporters are important for the hepatic uptake of telmisartan, the uptake assay was carried out using OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-expressing human embryonic kidney 293 cells and cryopreserved human hepatocytes. The uptake of telmisartan by OATP1B3-expressing cells was saturable (K(m) = 0.81 microM) and significantly higher than that by vector-transfected cells. In contrast, no significant uptake was observed in OATP1B1-expressing cells. We also observed the saturable uptake of telmisartan by human hepatocytes. Thirty micromolar estrone-3-sulfate, which can selectively inhibit OATP1B1-mediated uptake compared with OATP1B3, did not inhibit the uptake of telmisartan in human hepatocytes, whereas it could inhibit the uptake of estradiol 17beta-d-glucuronide mediated by OATP1B1. These results suggest that OATP1B3 is predominantly involved in the hepatic uptake of telmisartan in humans.