Alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors play an important role in the control of heart function. According to their molecular, biological, and pharmacological characteristics, they are subdivided into alpha(1)-, alpha(2)- and beta(1)-, beta(2)-, beta(3)-, beta(4)-adrenoceptors. In cardiac disease, there is often a selective downregulation of beta(1)-adrenoceptors associated with a relative increase in beta(2)- and alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. Functional imaging techniques like single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) provide the unique capability for non-invasive assessment of cardiac adrenoceptors. Radioligands with high specific binding to cardiac alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors suitable for radiolabelling are required for clinical studies. The non-selective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist [(11)C]CGP-12177 was used to quantify beta-adrenoceptor density using PET in patients with heart disease. New non-selective ligands (e. g. [(11)C]CGP-12388, [(18)F]CGP-12388, [(11)C]carazolol and [(18)F]fluorocarazolol) are currently evaluated; beta(1)-selective radioligands (e. g. [(11)C]CGP-26505, [(11)C]bisoprolol, [(11)C]HX-CH 44) and beta(2)-selective radioligands (e. g. [(11)C]formoterol, [(11)C]ICI-118551) were assessed in animals. None of them turned out as suitable for cardiac PET. Potential radioligands for imaging cardiac alpha(1)-adrenoceptors are based on prazosin. Whereas [(11)C]prazosin shows low specific binding to myocardium, its derivative [(11)C]GB67 looks more promising. The putative alpha(2)-adrenoceptor radioligand [(11)C]MK-912 shows high uptake in rodent myocardium but has not yet been evaluated in man. A number of radioligands were evaluated for assessing cardiac adrenoceptors using PET. New radioligands are needed to provide more insight into cardiac pathophysiology which may influence the therapeutic management of patients with cardiovascular disease.
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Two pivotal randomized, double-blind studies of doxazosin GITS for BPH were assessed by an integrated analysis. Both studies included a 2-week washout period, a 2-week single-blind placebo run-in phase, and a 13-week double-blind treatment phase. One study compared doxazosin GITS, doxazosin standard (-S) and placebo in 795 men; the other compared doxazosin GITS and doxazosin-S in 680 men. Doxazosin GITS was initiated at 4 mg once daily and titrated to 8 mg once daily after 7 weeks, and doxazosin-S was initiated at 1 mg once daily and titrated to a maximum of 8 mg once daily over 7 weeks as needed to achieve optimal symptom control. The primary outcome measures were mean changes from baseline to the final visit for the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) in the per-protocol population. Numerous symptom- and urinary-related secondary outcomes were assessed, as were effects of therapy on male erectile dysfunction measured using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) in one study.
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Lungs from near-term fetal guinea pigs (60 +/- 2 days of gestation) were supported in vitro for 3 h; lung liquid production was monitored by a dye-dilution method. Studies of 30 fetuses showed that untreated preparations produced fluid at 1.34 +/- 0.21 ml.h-1.kg body wt-1, but epinephrine at concentrations known at delivery (10(-8) and 10(-7) M) produced significant reductions or fluid reabsorption (analysis of variance, regression analysis); at high levels (10(-6) and 10(-5) M, epinephrine had no effect. Maximal responses from 10(-7) M epinephrine involved alpha-adrenoreceptors, since they were abolished by 10(-6) M phentolamine (alpha-antagonist) but were unaffected by 10(-6) M propranolol (beta-antagonist; n = 36). Activation was through alpha2-adrenoreceptors, since responses were abolished by 10(-4) M yohimbine (alpha-antagonist; n = 24) but were resistant to 10(-5) M prazosin (alpha 1-antagonist; n = 24). At high levels of epinephrine (10(-5) M), where responses did not normally occur, reductions in lung liquid production were large if prazosin was also present (n = 24), and increases were significant if yohimbine was included (n = 24). In guinea pigs, epinephrine appears to activate lung fluid reabsorption through alpha 2-adrenoreceptors; at high concentrations only, it can also increase production through alpha 1-adrenoreceptors. Therefore, species differences appear to exist.
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1. Membrane responses were recorded by a patch pipette technique in cultured cells isolated from rat portal vein. Using the whole-cell mode, pressure ejections of noradrenaline evoked depolarization (current clamp) and inward current (voltage clamp) at membrane potentials of -60 to -70 mV. The noradrenaline-induced response was reversibly blocked by prazosin indicating that the response was mediated by alpha 1-adrenoceptors. 2. The ionic mechanism of the noradrenaline-induced inward current was investigated in potassium-free caesium-containing solutions. Alteration of the chloride equilibrium potential produced similar changes in the reversal potential of the noradrenaline-induced current, indicating that noradrenaline opened chloride-selective channels. There was no evidence implicating sodium or calcium as the charge-carrying ion. 3. Caffeine applied in the bathing solution also induced a transient increase in chloride conductance but the noradrenaline-induced response was lost after application of caffeine. This is interpreted to mean that the increase in chloride conductance induced by noradrenaline and caffeine can occur as a consequence of a rise in intracellular calcium concentration depending on release of calcium from the same intracellular stores. 4. In the presence of caffeine, noradrenaline increased both the voltage-dependent calcium and chloride membrane conductances during application of repetitive depolarizing pulses. It is concluded that in isolated cells of the rat portal vein the depolarization in response to noradrenaline is mediated by an increase in chloride conductance depending on both the calcium release from intracellular stores and the increase of the voltage-dependent calcium current.
The effect of arotinolol on the incomplete tetanic contractions of the cat soleus muscle was studied. Isoproterenol and epinephrine injected intravenously decreased the tension and degree of fusion of incomplete tetanic contractions of the soleus muscle in anesthetized cats. Intravenous arotinolol (> 3 micrograms/kg), propranolol (> 30 micrograms/kg) and pindolol (> 3 micrograms/kg) blocked the effects of isoproterenol and epinephrine, but atenolol (-300 micrograms/kg), prazosin (0.1-10 micrograms/kg) and phentolamine (10, 30 micrograms/kg) did not block them. These results indicate that the receptors involved can be classified as of the beta 2-type. It is proposed that arotinolol may inhibit beta 2-adrenoceptors in the extrafusal muscle fibers of slow muscle, and thereby reduces the amplitude of tremor by changing the incomplete tetanic contractions of the muscle to the complete ones.
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Ouabain may induce an increase in tension response in human prostate, and this effect is due mainly to an increase in noradrenaline release via an effect on the Na+-dependent Ca2+ influx system.
1. The effectiveness of alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptor activation was compared at different levels of the saphenous and cephalic vein of the dog in vitro. 2. Helically cut strips were used to determine concentration-response curves to phenylephrine, noradrenaline, UK-14,304 (5-bromo-6-(imidazoline-2-ylamino)-quinoxaline) and B-HT 920 (2-amino-6-allyl-5,6,7,8-tetra-hydro-4H-(thiazo)-4,5-d-azepine). The effect of prazosin and yohimbine on these curves was also studied. 3. At the distal level, the maximum response to UK-14,304 amounted to 33 and 50% of those to noradrenaline in the saphenous and cephalic vein, respectively, while at the proximal level the maximum response to UK-14,304 amounted to 72 and 78% of those to noradrenaline, in the saphenous and cephalic vein, respectively. 4. In both vessels, the results obtained with B-HT 920 were very similar to those for UK-14,304. 5. The pD2 values for UK-14,304 - which were identical at the three levels of both vessels - and the pA2 values for the antagonism exerted by either prazosin or yohimbine against the responses to UK-14,304 indicate that the alpha 2-adrenoceptors are identical at the different levels of both vessels. 6. These results show that the effectiveness of alpha 2-adrenoceptor stimulation increases from the distal to the proximal regions of canine limb veins. Apparently, this is due to a greater density of alpha 2-adrenoceptors in the proximal regions. 7. Yohimbine is much more potent against phenylephrine distally than proximally in both vessels. However, after 30 nm phenoxybenzamine - a concentration which eliminates the vast majority of alpha,-adrenoceptors without affecting alpha 2-adrenoceptors - yohimbine became equally potent at both levels, suggesting that the difference existing before phenoxybenzamine depended on alpha,-adrenoceptors. Hence it is concluded that alpha,-adrenoceptors in distal and proximal portions may differ.
Small intestine was taken from the caudal flexure of the duodenum and the terminal ileum proximal to the ileocaecal fold of 25 horses, 9 with acute grass sickness (AGS), 12 with subacute grass sickness (SAGS) and 12 with chronic grass sickness (CGS). The motility in the samples was measured isometrically either within 1 h of death or after storage for 24 h at 4 degree C. In control tissue, noradrenaline produced contractions of muscle strips which did not involve a muscarinic cholinergic mechanism and which were unaffected by the alpha 1 antagonist prazosin but were blocked by the alpha 2 antagonist yohimbine. Pretreatment with the alpha antagonist phentolamine prevented the contractile response to noradrenaline and the background contractions either continued at a reduced rate and amplitude or were abolished after a few minutes. Thus, following alpha blockade, noradrenaline reduced the background contraction rate by an effect on inhibitory beta adrenoceptors. The rate of background contractions in duodenal preparations was significantly greater than that in control ideal preparations. Although cold storage for 24 h caused a reduction in the background contraction rates of the control preparations, there was no effect on the contractile responses to noradrenaline, the associated pharmacology being similar to that of fresh tissue. This suggests that noradrenaline-evoked contraction was not dependent on enteric neural elements. The response to noradrenaline by grass sickness-affected tissue was generally similar to that of tissue from control horses, with an immediate contraction which was alpha 2 sensitive. The contractile response to noradrenaline after propranolol was significantly reduced in the CGS group and there were significant differences between the AGS, CGS and control groups. There was a significant difference between the ileal preparations from the control and SAGS groups in their response to noradrenaline following pretreatment with propranolol.
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alpha 2-Adrenergic receptors in rat pineal membranes were characterized using p-[125I]iodoclonidine, a highly selective, high specific activity ligand. Binding was rapid (association constant rate = 0.0462 nM/min-1) and reversible after the addition of phentolamine (apparent dissociation rate constant = 0.04 min-1). Saturation experiments indicate the presence of a single class of noncooperative binding sites, with an equilibrium binding constant (Kd) of 1.1 +/- 0.3 nM and a binding capacity (Bmax) of 69 +/- 9 fmol/mg protein. Analysis of the relative potency of selected adrenoreceptor agonists and antagonists in competition studies with p-[125I]iodoclonidine indicates that the ligand is binding to a member of the family of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors that has a high affinity for oxymetazoline, phentolamine, and (-)norepinephrine and a low affinity for prazosin, similar to the recently described alpha 2-adrenergic receptor present in the bovine pineal gland, classified as belonging to the newly described alpha 2D-adrenergic receptor subtype. Rat pineal alpha 2-adrenergic receptors were unaltered after nerve endings degenerated. This observation and the recent finding that alpha 2-adrenergic agonists potentiate N6,2'-O-dibutyryl-cAMP or isobutylmethylxanthine stimulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase in the rat pineal gland establish that alpha 2D-like adrenergic receptors are located on pinealocytes.