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All of those adults with epilepsy on the lists of 17 general practitioners in Metropolitan London were identified. 87% of these agreed to be separately interviewed in their homes by a neurologist and a sociologist. The vast majority had been referred to hospital for investigation, and their hospital notes were inspected. The pattern of care suggests unnecessary referral, unnecessary electroencephalography, inadequate communication of the diagnosis, inadequate medication, and follow-up supervision not related to patient need.
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Anticovulsant combined treatment produces statistically significant reduction of total thyroxine, free thyroxine and protein-bound iodine. Total cholesterin is significantly raised on average of the total. Basal concentration of thyreotropic hormone is slightly lowered. The extent of changes is rather greater than with Valproat-, Diphenylhydantoin- and primidon permanent treatment; it corresponds with that seen in long term Carbamazepin treatment. No definite combinations of anticonvulsants could be found which would act in a particularly unfavorable fashion on the thyroid hormone system. In double combinations the changes in serum concentrations were the same as in triple combinations. The action of combined treatment in permanent treatment with single drugs is thought to be due to a removal of T4 from the transport protein link and induction of liver enzyme, which produces rapid conversion and metabolizing of T4. A hypothalamic action of combined antoconvulsants is discussed.
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Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common tremor disorders in adults and is characterized by kinetic and postural tremor. To develop this practice parameter, the authors reviewed available evidence regarding initiation of pharmacologic and surgical therapies, duration of their effect, their relative benefits and risks, and the strength of evidence supporting their use.
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We report on four cases of primary orthostatic tremor. The purpose of this study is the rarity of this type of tremor and the differential diagnosis with other tremors. The electrophysiological study showed a 15-20 Hz tremor frequency in our cases. There are clinical, electrophysiological and therapeutic differences of primary orthostatic tremor in report to other tremors of legs, according to the literature and characteristics of our cases.
The most active growth and development of the human cerebrum and cerebellum occurs in the second half of pregnancy and in the first year of life. It is therefore not surprising that many teratogens may also affect development causing slight, moderate or even severe brain damage. The "classical" antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) valproic acid (VPA), phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone and carbamazepine are all considered to be teratogenic. They may increase the rate of major congenital anomalies including neural tube defects (NTD), cause specific facial and other dysmorphic features--the "Anti Epileptic Drug Syndrome" (AEDS) and often some degree of mental impairment. Of these AEDs, the most teratogenic seems to be valproic acid, causing about 2% of NTD and an additional increase of 4-8% in major congenital anomalies. Phenytoin also increases the rate of various anomalies, but apparently not of NTD. Phenobarbital primidone and carbamazepine are also teratogenic and impair intellectual function but to a lesser extent than VPA and phenytoin. Cognition is mainly impaired in the children that also exhibit the AEDS. The impairment is slight to moderate, leaving the affected children with a close to borderline intelligence. Lamotrigine monotherapy in pregnancy seems to be relatively safe. In general, polytherapy is more dangerous to the fetus than monotherapy and, at least for VPA and lamotrigine, there seems to be a "threshold effect".
Tremor is one of the clinical manifestations of dystonia; however, there are no specific therapeutic trials evaluating the efficacy of treatments for dystonic tremor (DT), tremor associated with dystonia or primary writing tremor (PWT). We systematically reviewed the literature available up to July 2013 on the treatment of these tremors and retrieved the data of 487 patients published in 43 papers detailing the effects of given interventions on tremor severity. Treatment outcome was highly variable, depending on the specific type of intervention and tremor distribution. No specifically designed studies were available for the treatment of tremor associated with dystonia. As for the other tremors, drug efficacy was generally disappointing and a moderate effect was only found with anticholinergics, tetrabenazine, clonazepam, β-blockers and primidone; levodopa was only efficacious on tremor due to dopa-responsive dystonia. The largest amount of data was available for botulinum toxin injections, which provided a marked improvement, particularly for the management of axial tremors (head or vocal cords). In refractory DTs, deep brain stimulation of several targets was attempted. Deep brain stimulation of globus pallidus internus, thalamus or subthalamic area led to a marked improvement of dystonic axial or appendicular tremors in most cases refractory to other treatments. Few other non-invasive treatments, for example, orthotic device in PWT, have been used with anecdotal success. In conclusion, considering the lack of good-quality studies, future randomised controlled trials are needed. In absence of evidence-based guidelines, we propose an algorithm for the treatment of DT based on currently available data.
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Changes in the blood picture as well as in the content of folic acid and iron in the serum were investigated in 223 patients treated in a psychiatric clinic because of psychoses and dementia. Psychopharmaka of the phenobarbiturate type, dihydrophenytoine as well as primidone were administered in 29 cases. As anaemia could be identified in 32 patients; 3 of them turned out to be a hyperchronic anaemia, 25 a normochromic anaemia and 4 a hypochromic type one. In 78.1% of the anaemic patients there was a lowered folic acid level. All four cases with hypochromic anaemia showed a lowered serum level. A hypersegmentation of neutrophilic granulocytes could be identified in 48 patients (28.4%), with a lowered folic acid content in the serum being present in all cases. A lowered folic acid content in the serum could be found in 76.2% of the patients. All patients treated with psychopharmaka showed a subnormal folic acid content. On the other hand, a lowered iron content in the serum could only be identified in 8.1% of the cases. The final evaluation of all findings gathered results in the recommendation to attach greater importance to a direct determination of folic acid concentration in the serum in those cases of disease particularly exposed.
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With the increasing use of treated wastewater and biosolids in agriculture, residues of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in these reused resources may contaminate food produce via plant uptake, constituting a route for human exposure. Although various PPCPs have been reported to be taken up by plants in laboratories or under field conditions, at present little information is available on their metabolism in plants. In this study, we applied carrot cell cultures to investigate the plant metabolism of PPCPs. Five phase I metabolites of carbamazepine were identified and the potential metabolism pathways of carbamazepine were proposed. We also used the carrot cell cultures as a rapid screening tool to initially assess the metabolism potentials of 18 PPCPs. Eleven PPCPs, including acetaminophen, caffeine, meprobamate, primidone, atenolol, trimethoprim, DEET, carbamazepine, dilantin, diazepam, and triclocarban, were found to be recalcitrant to metabolism. The other 7 PPCPs, including triclosan, naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, sulfamethoxazole, and atorvastatin, displayed rapid metabolism, with 0.4-47.3% remaining in the culture at the end of the experiment. Further investigation using glycosidase hydrolysis showed that 1.3-20.6% of initially spiked naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil were transformed into glycoside conjugates. Results from this study showed that plant cell cultures may be a useful tool for initially exploring the potential metabolites of PPCPs in plants as well as for rapidly screening the metabolism potentials of a variety of PPCPs or other emerging contaminants, and therefore may be used for prioritizing compounds for further comprehensive evaluations.