Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), an evergreen tree of the Meliaceae family, is known for its medicinal, cosmetic, pesticidal and insecticidal properties. We had previously sequenced and published the draft genome of a neem plant, using mainly short read sequencing data. In this report, we present an improved genome assembly generated using additional short reads from Illumina and long reads from Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencer. We assembled short reads and error-corrected long reads using Platanus, an assembler designed to perform well for heterozygous genomes. The updated genome assembly (v2.0) yielded 3- and 3.5-fold increase in N50 and N75, respectively; 2.6-fold decrease in the total number of scaffolds; 1.25-fold increase in the number of valid transcriptome alignments; 13.4-fold less misassembly and 1.85-fold increase in the percentage repeat, over the earlier assembly (v1.0). The current assembly also maps better to the genes known to be involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. Together, the data represent an improved assembly of the A. indica genome.
Extension or otherwise of characteristic insect development inhibitory effects of the neem sesquiterpenoid azadirachtin have been examined on eggs and nauplii of the crustacean cyclops, M. leuckarti sensu lato, a major vector of guineaworm disease at 0.1 ppm and above doses. Azadirachtin reduced survival of early nauplii (N1 to N3) at 0.1 ppm and above doses. No such effect was observed when eggs and late nauplii (N4 to N5) were exposed. Azadirachtin did not affect the moult cycle when late nauplii (N4 to N5) were exposed continuously till adulthood. At all concentrations tested, adult cyclops exhibited normal mating.
neem juice buy
The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica) is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80% of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world's population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary.
neem 475 mg
Nimbidin the major bitter principle from oil of seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss was investigated for various pharmacological actions in a number animal models. On central nervous system it exhibited moderate sedative effect it did not show any significant cardiovascular effects in experimental animals. Autonomic pharmacological studies (in-vitro) revealed pronounced anticholinergic antihistaminic (H1-receptor), anti 5 HT and antinicotinic activities. But in-vivo tests did not show any anticholinergic or anti-histaminic activity. Nimbidin possessed moderate diuretic activity and was found to be devoid of local anaesthetic and antiandrogenic effects in rodents.
Various chemical agents have been evaluated over the years with respect to their antimicrobial effects in the oral cavity; however, all are associated with side effects that prohibit regular long-term use. Therefore, the effectiveness of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf extract against plaque formation was assessed in males between the age group of 20-30 years over a period of 6 weeks. Present study includes formulation of mucoadhesive dental gel containing Azadirachta indica leaf extract (25 mg/g). A 6-week clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of neem extract dental gel with commercially available chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% w/v) mouthwash as positive control. Microbial evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli species was carried out to determine the total decrease in the salivary bacterial count over a period of treatment using a semi-quantitative four quadrant streaking method. The results of the study suggested that the dental gel containing neem extract has significantly (P<0.05) reduced the plaque index and bacterial count than that of the control group.
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and causes bluetongue (BT), a clinical disease observed primarily in sheep. BT has a detrimental effect on subsistence farmers in India, where hyperendemic outbreaks impact on smallholdings in the southern states of the country. In this study, we establish a reliable method for testing the toxic effects of deltamethrin on Culicoides and then compare deltamethrin with traditional control methods used by farmers in India.
dabur neem tablet
Based on the above results, it can be inferred that these natural products have the maximum efficacy against microorganisms and can be recommended in dentifrices, mouth rinses, topical gels, etc.
neem capsule benefits
The average yield of two extractions of NCE was 8.33 ± 1.67%. Combination of 1000 mg/kg of NCE and 15 mg/kg of artesunic acid, produced a significant reduction of parasitemia (96.87%), compared to 20 mg/kg of artesunic acid alone (68.14%). The combination had an ED50 of 0.58 mg/kg while that of artesunic acid alone was 8.814 mg/kg. The combinations of NCE with artesunic acid produced a cure, although the artesunic acid did not produce a cure in 30 d.
dabur neem tablets
Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the most versatile tropical evergreen tree species known in India since the Vedic period (1500 BC-600 BC). Neem tree is a rich source of limonoids, having a wide spectrum of activity against insect pests and microbial pathogens. Complex tetranortriterpenoids such as azadirachtin, salanin and nimbin are the major active principles isolated from neem seed. Absolutely nothing is known about the biochemical pathways of these metabolites in neem tree. To identify genes and pathways in neem, we sequenced neem genomes and transcriptomes using next generation sequencing technologies. Assembly of Illumina and 454 sequencing reads resulted in 267 Mb, which accounts for 70% of estimated size of neem genome. We predicted 44,495 genes in the neem genome, of which 32,278 genes were expressed in neem tissues. Neem genome consists about 32.5% (87 Mb) of repetitive DNA elements. Neem tree is phylogenetically related to citrus, Citrus sinensis. Comparative analysis anchored 62% (161 Mb) of assembled neem genomic contigs onto citrus chromomes. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (UHPLC-MS/SRM) method was used to quantify azadirachtin, nimbin, and salanin from neem tissues. Weighted Correlation Network Analysis (WCGNA) of expressed genes and metabolites resulted in identification of possible candidate genes involved in azadirachtin biosynthesis pathway. This study provides genomic, transcriptomic and quantity of top three neem metabolites resource, which will accelerate basic research in neem to understand biochemical pathways.