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5-year disease-free survival (5y DFS), 5-year overall survival (5y OS), and safety.
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The acetylcholine-induced responses obtained in the OVX were lower than those obtained in the SHAM, and all treatments restored this response. l-NAME reduced and equalized the acetylcholine-induced response in all groups. The attenuation of the acetylcholine-induced responses by aminoguanidine was greater in the OVX. Endothelial dysfunction in OVX was associated with oxidative stress and an increase in iNOS and decrease in eNOS expression. Except for the production of reactive oxidative species (ROS) in the OVX+tamoxifen, treatments improved the nitric oxide component of the relaxation response and normalized both the oxidative stress and the expression of those signaling pathway enzymes. Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were increased in OVX, and treatments normalized these levels.
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Novel therapies in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) signal the need for markers of disease progression or response to therapy. This study aimed to identify disease-associated proteins in urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs), which include exosomes, in patients with ADPKD. We performed quantitative proteomics on uEVs from healthy controls and patients with ADPKD using a labeled approach and then used a label-free approach with uEVs of different subjects (healthy controls versus patients with ADPKD versus patients with non-ADPKD CKD). In both experiments, 30 proteins were consistently more abundant (by two-fold or greater) in ADPKD-uEVs than in healthy- and CKD-uEVs. Of these proteins, we selected periplakin, envoplakin, villin-1, and complement C3 and C9 for confirmation because they were also significantly overrepresented in pathway analysis and were previously implicated in ADPKD pathogenesis. Immunoblotting confirmed higher abundances of the selected proteins in uEVs from three independent groups of patients with ADPKD. Whereas uEVs of young patients with ADPKD and preserved kidney function already had higher levels of complement, only uEVs of patients with advanced stages of ADPKD had increased levels of villin-1, periplakin, and envoplakin. Furthermore, all five proteins correlated positively with total kidney volume. Analysis in kidney tissue from mice with kidney-specific, tamoxifen-inducible Pkd1 deletion demonstrated higher expression in more severe stages of the disease and correlation with kidney weight for each protein of interest. In summary, proteomic analysis of uEVs identified plakins and complement as disease-associated proteins in ADPKD. These proteins are new candidates for evaluation as biomarkers or targets for therapy in ADPKD.
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Heart valve development begins with the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of endocardial cells. Although lineage studies have demonstrated contributions from cardiac neural crest and epicardium to semilunar and atrioventricular (AV) valve formation, respectively, most valve mesenchyme derives from the endocardial EMT. Specific Cre mouse lines for fate-mapping analyses of valve endocardial cells are limited. Msx1 displayed expression in AV canal endocardium and cushion mesenchyme between E9.5 and E11.5, when EMT is underway. Additionally, previous studies have demonstrated that deletion of Msx1 and its paralog Msx2 results in hypoplastic AV cushions and impaired endocardial signaling. A knock-in tamoxifen-inducible Cre line was recently generated (Msx1CreERT2) and characterized during embryonic development and after birth, and was shown to recapitulate the endogenous Msx1 expression pattern. Here, we further analyze this knock-in allele and track the Msx1-expressing cells and their descendants during cardiac development with a particular focus on their contribution to the valves and their precursors. Thus, Msx1CreERT2 mice represent a useful model for lineage tracing and conditional gene manipulation of endocardial and mesenchymal cushion cells essential to understand mechanisms of valve development and remodeling.
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There was no significant difference in physiologic effects between placebo lubricant users vs. nonusers in either 12-week study. Compared with baseline, substantially more subjects receiving ospemifene 60 mg/day than placebo showed complete resolution of clinical signs of VVA after 12 and 52 weeks of treatment.
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Clusterin is a secreted glycoprotein that is upregulated in a variety of cell lines in response to stress, and enhances cell survival. A second nuclear isoform of clusterin that is associated with cell death has also been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the role(s) of the secretory isoform in breast tumor progression and metastasis.
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The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of tamoxifen and raloxifene in non-neoplastic breast epithelium. A randomized, double-blind study was carried out in 57 ovulatory, premenopausal women of 18-40 years of age, who had been diagnosed with fibroadenoma of the breast. The patients were divided into three groups: Group A: placebo, n=20; Group B: tamoxifen 20 mg/day, n = 21; and Group C: raloxifene 60mg/day, n=16. The study medication was given for 22 days starting on the first day of the menstrual cycle. On the 23rd day, the fibroadenoma was removed and a sample of non-neoplastic breast tissue was collected for immunohistochemical evaluation of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Comparison between the mean percentages of stained nuclei in the three groups was performed by analysis of variance and multiple comparisons, using Tukey's method to compare pairwise means, with significance established at P < 0.05. Exposition to tamoxifen or raloxifene resulted in a significant and similar reduction in the mean percentage of stained nuclei for estrogen and progesterone receptors (P<0.0001). Tamoxifen and raloxifene reduce progesterone and estrogen receptor alpha expression significantly and to a similar extent in the non-neoplastic breast tissue of women of reproductive age.
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In vitro covalent binding assessments of drugs have been useful in providing retrospective insights into the association between drug metabolism and a resulting toxicological response. On the basis of these studies, it has been advocated that in vitro covalent binding to liver microsomal proteins in the presence and the absence of NADPH be used routinely to screen drug candidates. However, the utility of this approach in predicting toxicities of drug candidates accurately remains an unanswered question. Importantly, the years of research that have been invested in understanding metabolic bioactivation and covalent binding and its potential role in toxicity have focused only on those compounds that demonstrate toxicity. Investigations have not frequently queried whether in vitro covalent binding could be observed with drugs with good safety records. Eighteen drugs (nine hepatotoxins and nine nonhepatotoxins in humans) were assessed for in vitro covalent binding in NADPH-supplemented human liver microsomes. Of the two sets of nine drugs, seven in each set were shown to undergo some degree of covalent binding. Among hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen, carbamazepine, diclofenac, indomethacin, nefazodone, sudoxicam, and tienilic acid demonstrated covalent binding, while benoxaprofen and felbamate did not. Of the nonhepatotoxic drugs evaluated, buspirone, diphenhydramine, meloxicam, paroxetine, propranolol, raloxifene, and simvastatin demonstrated covalent binding, while ibuprofen and theophylline did not. A quantitative comparison of covalent binding in vitro intrinsic clearance did not separate the two groups of compounds, and in fact, paroxetine, a nonhepatotoxin, showed the greatest amount of covalent binding in microsomes. Including factors such as the fraction of total metabolism comprised by covalent binding and the total daily dose of each drug improved the discrimination between hepatotoxic and nontoxic drugs based on in vitro covalent binding data; however, the approach still would falsely identify some agents as potentially hepatotoxic.
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Endocrine therapy is an important therapeutic approach for the treatment of oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. However, a number of these endocrine therapies can fail when the tumour loses its ER expression during treatment. To date, few studies have explored the potential clinical significance of traditional Chinese medicine in inducing the reversal of resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancers. We used the ERα-negative MCF7 breast cancer cell line to create a tamoxifen (TAM)-resistant cell line, MCF7/TAM cells. After treating MCF7/TAM cells with ELE to induce the re-expression of ERα, we investigated the role and molecular mechanisms by which elemene (ELE) promotes the reversal of resistance to endocrine therapy. We discovered that treatment with 10 μg/ml ELE restored the sensitivity of MCF7/TAM cells to TAM. RT-PCR analysis revealed that ELE treatment upregulated ERα mRNA levels in MCF7/TAM cells, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the upregulation of ERα expression. Western blot analysis revealed that ELE treatment decreased the protein expression levels of Ras, MEK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 in MCF7/TAM cells. The loss of ERα expression was the primary reason for TAM resistance in MCF7 cells. The ELE-induced reversal of TAM resistance was mediated by the upregulation of ERα mRNA and the re-expression of ERα through the MAPK pathway.