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Patients with primary breast cancer treated with adjuvant tamoxifen for 2 years were included. A tissue microarray of primary tumors and lymph node metastases was constructed, and estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67 were analyzed immunohistochemically in 262, 257, 104, and 101 patients, respectively. Five years' distant disease-free survival (DDFS) was used as the primary end point.
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Between 1986 and 2000, operable breast cancer patients who received exclusively adjuvant tamoxifen for at least 3 years were selected from the authors' institutional database. Age, histology, pathologic tumor size, modified Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (mSBR) grade, mitotic index, tumor necrosis, peritumoral vascular emboli (PVE), HR status, and the number of involved axillary lymph-node were considered as prognostic factors of recurrence.
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To evaluate impact of different postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) regimens and raloxifene on mammographic breast density.
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From October 1982 through March 1990 we randomised 1445 patients and 969 (67%) were eligible for the biomarker analysis. At 10-years 936 women had suffered a disease-free survival (DFS) event (tamoxifen, 495 events in 686 patients; CMFT, 441 events in 642 patients). The addition of CMF to tamoxifen significantly improved DFS (adjusted hazard ratio 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-0.93; P = 0.003) but not overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio 0.95; 95% CI 0.85-1.08; P = 0.44). DFS was superior in Luminal A tumours (ER or PgR positive, HER2 negative and Ki67 ≤ 14%) when compared to Luminal B or non-luminal (ER and PgR negative) tumours. There was no statistical evidence of heterogeneity by subtype in the benefit from CMF (P(interaction) = 0.45).
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To determine the cause of death of Brg1/Brm double-mutant mice, to test the hypothesis that BRG1 and BRM are required for cardiac contractility, and to identify relevant downstream target genes.
The OA progression was decelerated in Mmp13Col2ER mice 8, 12, and 16 weeks post-surgery. Cartilage grading by blinded observers confirmed decreased articular cartilage degeneration in Mmp13Col2ER mice at 8, 12 and 16 weeks compared to Cre-negative mice. Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that Mmp13Col2ER mice had a higher articular cartilage area and thickness at 12 and 16 weeks post-surgery compared to the control mice. Results of IHC revealed greater type II collagen and proteoglycan expression in Mmp13Col2ER mice. Chondrocyte apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL staining, was higher in control mice compared to Mmp13Col2ER mice. CL82198 inhibited MMP13 activity in conditioned media from vehicle (>85%) or bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-treated (>90%) primary murine sternal chondrocytes. Intraperitoneal injection of CL82198 decelerated MLI-induced OA progression, increased type II collagen and proteoglycan levels, and inhibited chondrocyte apoptosis compared to saline treatment as determined by OA grading, histology, histomorphometry, IHC, and TUNEL staining, respectively.
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Four hundred sixteen patients were enrolled onto the study. Median TTP was 15.3 weeks for lapatinib versus 15.4 weeks for HT (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.94; P = .60), and median OS was 46.9 weeks for lapatinib versus 43.1 weeks for HT (HR = 0.88; P = .29). In a biomarker analysis of patients with EGFR-overexpressed tumors (3+ by immunohistochemistry [IHC]; n = 241) median TTP was 15.1 weeks for lapatinib versus 10.9 weeks for HT (HR = 0.76; P = .06), and median OS was 46.0 weeks for lapatinib versus 37.9 weeks for HT (HR = 0.69; P = .02). These results were confirmed by Cox regression analysis. No unexpected toxicities were observed; the most commonly reported drug-related adverse events (all grades) for lapatinib were rash (44%) and diarrhea (40%).
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The aspects of central retinal function that are assessed by multifocal ERG were not affected even after at least 2 years of tamoxifen use, suggesting that the multifocal ERG is not sufficiently sensitive to detect tamoxifen-associated change that might occur. Some degree of color vision loss and ocular toxic effects were found in a few cases of this cohort suggesting that women using tamoxifen should receive an eye exam at least as often as recommended for middle-aged people.
Aromatase inhibitor use rose dramatically after 2001 while tamoxifen use decreased. It appears results from early clinical trials changed practice in these integrated healthcare systems before formal changes in national guidelines.