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P. aeruginosa rods are opportunistic pathogens responsible generally for nosocomial infections. Resistance to carbapenems, observed among them, is a serious threat due to ability to be transmitted between bacterial species. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of PCR-RAPD technique in typing of 16 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated in 2007 from different patients of University HospitalNo. 1 of dr A. Jurasz Collegium Medicum of L. Rydygier in Bydgoszcz Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. Study shows increasing frequency of isolation that type of strains when compared to 2006. Percentage of carbapenem-resistant isolates raised from 12,4% in 2006 to 22.9% in 2007. The majority of examined strains were obtained from patients of the Intensive Care Units (25.0%) and were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage (25.0%), urine (25.0%) and wound swabs (18.8%) samples. Examined P. aeruginosa strains demonstrated resistance to doripenem (81.3%) and piperacillin (75.0%) and susceptibility to colistin (100.0%), amikacin (81.3%), netilmicin and norfloxacin (75.0% each). Using PCR-RAPD amplification with 208 and 272 primers, 14 and 16 DNA patterns were obtained, respectively. Usefulness of PCR-RAPD in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains typing was proved in case of strains presenting similar and/or different antimicrobials susceptibility patterns.
Bacterial isolates were cultured using both liquid and solid media. The four most frequent isolates were analyzed and their in vitro susceptibility to levofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, lomefloxacin, tobramycin, netilmycin, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol was tested, using the Kirby-Bauer diffusion method and National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) serum standards.
The influence of clindamycin, dicloxacillin, minocycline and norfloxacin on the faecal concentration of urobilinogen was investigated. The studied drugs were administered orally in standard dosage for six days to groups of six volunteers. A decrease in faecal concentration of urobilinogen following administration of clindamycin (P less than 0.01) and dicloxacillin (P less than 0.05) was found. The possible predictive value of a decrease of the faecal level of urobilinogen as an indicator for the impairment of microbial colonization resistance and for the risk of failure of oral anticonceptive treatment is discussed. It is suggested that clindamycin and dicloxacillin should not be combined with oral anticonceptive treatment unless more specific investigations have excluded interaction of these drugs with the oestrogen metabolism in the bowel.
An agar dilution method was used to measure the minimal inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin (Bay o 9867), norfloxacin, pipemidic acid, and nalidixic acid against 496 clinical isolates. Ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were active against all species tested (90% minimal inhibitory concentrations less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml), although ciprofloxacin was somewhat more active, e.g., against gram-positive cocci. Pipemidic acid and nalidixic acid were active against most of the members of the Enterobacteriaceae, but Klebsiella species and Providencia stuartii were only inhibited by a high concentration of nalidixic acid.
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Bacterial infections are a serious complication of cirrhosis, as they can lead to decompensation, multiple organ failure, and/or death. Preventing infections is therefore very relevant. Because gut bacterial translocation is their main pathogenic mechanism, prevention of infections is mostly based on the use of orally administered poorly absorbed antibiotics such as norfloxacin (selective intestinal decontamination). However, antibiotic prophylaxis leads to antibiotic resistance, limiting therapy and increasing morbidity and mortality. Prevention of bacterial infections in cirrhosis should therefore move away from antibiotics.
Multiple inducible prophages with diverse infection properties have been maintained in the LES genome. Our data suggest that LESφ2 is more sensitive to induction into the lytic cycle or has a more efficient replicative cycle than the other LES phages.
During a survey examining the causes of diarrhea in the East African country of Djibouti, 140 bacterial pathogens were recovered from 209 diarrheal and 100 control stools. The following pathogens were isolated at comparable frequencies from both diarrheal and control stools: enteroadherent Escherichia coli (EAEC) (10.6 versus 13%), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (11 versus 10%), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (7.7 versus 12%), Salmonella spp. (2.9 versus 3%), and Campylobacter jejuni-C. coli (3.3 versus 5%). Surprisingly, the EAEC strains isolated did not correspond to well-recognized EPEC serogroups. No Yersinia spp., enteroinvasive E. coli, or enterohemorrhagic E. coli were isolated during the course of this study. Only the following two genera were recovered from diarrheal stools exclusively: Shigella spp. (7.7%) and Aeromonas hydrophila group organisms (3.3%). Shigella flexneri was the most common Shigella species isolated. Patients with Shigella species were of a higher average age than were controls (27 versus 13 years), while subjects with Campylobacter or Salmonella species belonged to younger age groups (2.6 and 1.6 years, respectively). Salmonella cases were more often in females. Shigella diarrhea was associated with fecal blood or mucus and leukocytes. ETEC was not associated with nausea or vomiting. Anorexia, weight loss, and fever were associated with the isolation of Salmonella and Aeromonas species. EAEC, ETEC, EPEC, and Shigella species were resistant to most drugs used for treating diarrhea in Africa, while the antibiotic most active against all bacteria tested was norfloxacin. We conclude that in Djibouti in 1989, Shigella and Aeromonas species must be considered as potential pathogens whenever they are isolated from diarrheal stools and that norfloxacin should be considered the drug of choice in adults for treating severe shigellosis and for diarrhea prophylaxis in travelers.
The aim of the study was to estimate changes in bacterial flora of conjunctival sac changes in patients prophylacticaly treated with different antibiotics (chloramphenicol, gentamycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin) before cataract operation.
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In vitro interactions between NOR and UA may contribute to the development of novel topical agents for the treatment of skin infections as well as for topical formulations.
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Nine new compounds were synthesized (IIa-c and IIIa-f). The structure of the title compounds were identified by 1HNMR, MS as well as elementary analysis.