To assess the relationship between home blood pressure and left ventricular mass, we evaluated cardiac echocardiography in 297 hypertensive subjects (188 men and 109 women; mean age, 62.8+/-10.3 years) who were treated with amlodipine monotherapy over 1 year (mean dose, 5.5+/-2.3 mg/day). The morning hypertension group (n=57; 19.2%), who had a morning home systolic blood pressure (HSBP) > or =135 mmHg and an evening HSBP <135 mmHg, had a significantly greater left ventricular mass index (LVMI) concomitant with an increase in the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) compared to the good control group (n=174; 58.6%), whose morning and evening HSBP were both <135 mmHg, and had a LVMI roughly equivalent to that of the poor control group (n=63; 21.2%), whose morning and evening HSBP were both > or =135 mmHg. By grouping of subjects according to the difference between morning and evening HSBP (delta HSBP), subjects with a delta HSBP> or =10 mmHg had a significantly greater LVMI than subjects with a delta HSBP <10 mmHg. Increases in LVMI in these patients were still significant after adjustment for age, gender, dose of amlodipine, alcohol consumption, body mass index, office systolic blood pressure, and morning and evening HSBP. In a stepwise multivariate regression analysis, delta HSBP (r2=36.2%, p <0.001), morning HSBP (r2=5.5%, p <0.001), HOMA-IR (r2=1.4%, p=0.016) and age (r2=1.0%, p=0.026) were determined to be significant contributing factors for LVMI. This regression model could explain 44.1% of LVMI variability. These results suggest that morning rise in blood pressure is a dominant predictor of left ventricular hypertrophy.
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The JEWEL program consists of two 16-week, international, open-label, multicenter, titration-to-goal studies in patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. The 2 studies differ based on country of enrollment and certain tertiary endpoints, but the overall designs are very similar. Patients have been enrolled from 255 centers across Canada and 13 European countries. The study is designed to assess the efficacy, safety, and utility of amlodipine/atorvastatin single-pill therapy in a real-world setting. Patients will be initiated at a dose of amlodipine 5 mg/atorvastatin 10 mg, unless previously treated, and will be uptitrated as necessary. The primary efficacy parameter is the percentage of patients, at different levels of cardiovascular risk, achieving country-specific guideline-recommended target levels for blood pressure and lipids. A secondary analysis of efficacy measured attainment of the same single goal for blood pressure across all study participants (JEWEL I and II) and the same single goal for LDL-C across all study participants (JEWEL I and II). The program will utilize a newly developed questionnaire to gain better understanding of participants' beliefs and behaviors towards medical treatment of their multiple risk factors. Approximately 2850 patients will be enrolled in the program, which is due to be completed in August 2005.
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This pilot trial demonstrates that both furosemide and amlodipine might have the same effect during pregnancy. However, a large clinical trial is necessary to prove this.
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G-protein β-polypeptide 3 (GNB3) is a β subunit isoform of G-protein that plays important role in signal transduction of membrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The GNB3 splice variant C825T (rs5443) is associated with risk for essential hypertension (EH) and efficacy of therapeutic drugs targeting GPCRs. It is unknown whether the polymorphism is associated with blood pressure (BP) response to telmisartan or amlodipine, two widely prescribed antihypertensive drugs.
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The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has long been recognized to play a significant role in hypertension pathophysiology. Certain agents that modify the RAAS can control blood pressure and improve cardiovascular outcomes. Aliskiren is the first of a new class of antihypertensive agents known as renin inhibitors.
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) in axon degeneration during autoimmune optic neuritis.
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Randomised, controlled, open-label trial conducted in a regional acute hospital.
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We investigated whether the tissue transglutaminase inhibitor cystamine is able to inhibit remodelling of small arteries in vivo, a possibility suggested by recent in vitro experiments.
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Group 3 patients were found to show a preponderance of metabolic disturbances, such as dyslipidemia, obesity, as well as intrarenal arterial lesions and diminished kidney function. In addition, the most pronounced therapy-induced changes in the parameters under study were also observed in Group 3. In particular, resistive index, pulsatility index of interlobar arteries of the kidneys, and serum creatinine levels increased, the frequency of microalbuminuria episodes reduced, and GFR, endothelium-dependent dilation of the brachial artery, and systolic index rose statistically significantly. Group 3 also displayed statistically significant correlations of the resistive index of the interlobar arteries with GFR, urinary albumin excretion, endothelium-dependent vasodilation, and cardiac index.
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These results showed that antibiotic intake might increase the bioavailability of amlodipine by suppressing gut microbial metabolic activities, which could be followed by changes in therapeutic potency. Therefore, coadministration of amlodipine with antibiotics requires caution and clinical monitoring.
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Recent studies have suggested a differential influence of mean pressure and pulse pressure on myocardial infarction and stroke, and differences among the major drugs in their efficacy at preventing these individual endpoints. We hypothesized that antihypertensive drugs have differing influences upon the pulse wave even when their effects on blood pressure are the same. We studied 30 untreated hypertensive patients, aged 28-55 years, who were rotated through six 6-week periods of daily treatment with amlodipine 5 mg, doxazosin 4 mg, lisinopril 10 mg, bisoprolol 5 mg, bendrofluazide 2.5 mg or placebo. The best drug was repeated at the end of the rotation. Blood pressure readings and radial pulse tonometry (by Sphygmocor) were performed at each visit, and blood was taken for measurement of levels of atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). The Sphygmocor derivation of the central aortic pulse wave was used to measure time for transmission of the reflected wave (T(R)) and the augmentation index (AI), which is the proportional increase in systolic pressure due to the reflected wave. There was a dissociation between the effects of the drugs on blood pressure and pulse wave analysis. Bisoprolol caused the greatest falls in blood pressure and T(R), but was the only drug to increase AI. This paradoxical response to bisoprolol was associated with a 3-fold increase in plasma BNP levels. There was a smaller elevation of BNP in women compared with men, as described previously, and this elevation also was associated with significantly higher values of AI. Other drugs reduced AI, and this was associated with a significant decrease in BNP by amlodipine. In conclusion, antihypertensive drugs differ in their short-term effects on augmentation of the systolic pulse wave and secretion of BNP from the heart, regarded as a sensitive measure of strain on cardiomyocytes. These differences may help to explain cause-specific differences in outcome in recent trials.