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Element™ BGMS was considered an appropriate SMBG for home use; however, the positive bias at low-to-mid glucose levels requires further improvement.
Non-opioid analgesics, antipyretics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used, but suspected allergic reactions to these drugs are rare, especially in children. Most frequent reactions are cutaneous (urticaria, angioedema) and respiratory (rhinitis, asthma). Other reactions (anaphylaxis, potentially harmful toxidermias) are rare. In a few patients, reactions may result from a specific (allergic) hypersensitivity, with positive responses in prick and intradermal tests (anaphylaxis, immediate urticaria and/or angioedema) and in intradermal and patch tests (non-immediate reactions). However, most reactions result from a non-specific (non-allergic) hypersensitivity (intolerance), with a frequent cross-reactivity between the various families of analgesics, antipyretics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including paracetamol. Based on a convincing clinical history and/or positive responses in challenge tests, intolerance to non-opioid analgesics, antipyretics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been diagnosed in 13 to 50% of the patients with allergic-like reactions to these drugs. Risk factors are a personal atopy and age. Prevention is based on administration of other (families of) analgesics, antipyretics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with allergic hypersensitivity to these drugs. In patients with non-allergic hypersensitivity, prevention is based on administration of drugs with a low cyclo-oxygenase-1 inhibitory activity (if tolerated). Desensitization is efficient in patients with respiratory reactions, but does not work in patients with mucocutaneous reactions and anaphylaxis.
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Both aspirin and acetaminophen use were inversely associated with breast cancer incidence in the present study. Reasons for the association with acetaminophen use are unclear, given that acetaminophen has very weak anti-inflammatory effects.
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The aim of this study was to assess removal dynamics of paracetamol (PAR), as an extraordinary chromophore in spent dialysate, upon the optical monitoring of dialysis of end-stage renal disease patients with inflammation complications. Seven dialysis sessions of different patients were followed to whom PAR was used as a pain reliever or antipyretic. Spent dialysate was sampled hourly and analyzed using HPLC with MS/MS and UV detection. Quantitative calculations were made on the basis of the peak areas on the chromatograms at 280 nm for uric acid (UA) and 254 nm for PAR and its metabolites (PAR-M). Peaks of UA, PAR, PAR-glucuronide, and PAR-sulphate were identified on the basis of specific mass spectra. Removal of PAR was found to be proportional to that of uric acid if intake of the drug by patient occurred half a day before dialysis. But disturbances of the UV-absorbance curves at 280 nm were observed related to rise of UA concentration in spent dialysate when PAR was taken by patients in the course of dialysis. The mechanism of such relation remains unknown. It was concluded that possible benefits and risks of treatment of uremic patients with paracetamol-containing drugs may need to be reassessed.
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In all the study sites, there were conditions that indicated the all year round transmission of malaria (characteristics of houses and limited access to media making sensitization campaigns difficult). In general, most households had a good knowledge of malaria and its mode of transmission. However, malaria treatment drugs were most often inappropriate. In this study, recommendations were made in order to guide the implementation of control measures.
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All symptoms disappeared on administration of analgesics and antipyretics. But after two days a maculopapular rash on the trunk and limbs was noted: it responded well to the application of clemastine. The patient was discharged from hospital three days after admission.
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HMGB1 impairs hepatocyte regeneration after APAP overdose; Blockade of HMGB1 enhances liver recovery and may present a novel therapy to treat APAP overdose.
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The ASK1 and P-ASK1 levels were up-regulated in APAP-induced group. Compared to the control group, serum levels of ALT and AST, and mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were increased in APAP-induced group. Meanwhile, the levels of MAD and GSSG, and the ratio of GSSG/GSH were higher and the JNK was activatedin APAP-induced group compared with that in control group. However, compared to APAP-induced group, GS combined with APAP-induced group displayed a decrease of protein expression levels of ASK1, P-ASK1 and P-JNK, a reduction of serum levels of ALT and AST, a decrease in TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA levels, and a low ration of GSSG/GSH.
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This article provides a review of Sid Nelson's key contributions to the fields of drug metabolism and toxicology over a long and distinguished career. Selected examples are discussed to illustrate the diversity of Sid's research, with an emphasis on understanding mechanistic aspects of metabolic activation processes and structure-toxicity relationships. These examples serve to illustrate the importance of emerging mass spectrometry and isotope labeling techniques in elucidating details of foreign compound metabolism at the molecular level, an area in which Sid pioneered most effectively.