parlodel tablet price
Prolactinomas are the most prevalent functional pituitary adenomas. Dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) agonists, such as bromocriptine are the first line of therapy; however, drug intolerance/resistance to D2R agonists exists. Apart from D2R agonists, there is no established medical therapy for prolactinomas; therefore, identifying novel therapeutics is warranted. Curcumin, a commonly used food additive in South Asian cooking, inhibits proliferation of several tumor cell lines; however, its effect on pituitary tumor cell proliferation has not been determined. Our objectives were to: 1) determine whether curcumin inhibits proliferation of pituitary tumor cell lines; 2) identify the signaling intermediaries that mediate the effect of curcumin; 3) examine whether curcumin inhibited pituitary hormone production and release; and 4) examine whether curcumin could enhance the growth-inhibitory effect of bromocriptine. Using rat lactotroph cell lines, GH3 and MMQ cells, we report that curcumin had a robust dose and time-dependent inhibitory effect on GH3 and MMQ cell proliferation. Inhibitory effects of curcumin persisted, even on removal of curcumin, and curcumin also blocked colony formation ability of pituitary tumor cells. The growth-inhibitory effect of curcumin was accompanied by decreased expression of cyclin D3 and ser 780 phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. In addition, curcumin also induced apoptosis in both GH3 and MMQ cells. Furthermore, curcumin suppresses intracellular levels and release of both prolactin and GH. Finally, we show that low concentrations of curcumin enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of bromocriptine on MMQ cell proliferation. Taken together we demonstrate that curcumin inhibits pituitary tumor cell proliferation, induces apoptosis, and decreases hormone production and release, and thus, we propose developing curcumin as a novel therapeutic tool in the management of prolactinomas.
parlodel dosage hyperprolactinemia
Rats were trained to discriminate the putatively selective dopamine (DA) receptor agonists SKF 38393 (10 mg/kg) or Ly 171555 (0.025 mg/kg) from saline in a two-lever situation involving fixed-ratio (FR 20), extinction schedules of water reinforcement. During substitution tests, no dose of any compound [apomorphine, Ly 171555, lisuride, LSD, amphetamine, cocaine, (-) 3-PPP, or SKF 82526] mimicked SKF 38393, the effects of which were blocked by the D1 antagonist Sch 23390 but not by haloperidol. Postsynaptic and DA "autoreceptor" agonists [apomorphine, (-) 3-PPP], as well as dopaminergic ergot derivatives (bromocriptine, lergotrile, lisuride) and Sch 23390, substituted for Ly 171555, a partial ergoline which has behavioral effects that are blocked by haloperidol and molindone, but not by either Sch 23390 or serotonin (5-HT) antagonists (ketanserin, pizotifen). Amphetamine and cocaine did not substitute for either SKF 38393 or Ly 171555. These results suggest that the stimulus properties of a variety of neuropharmacologically important and clinically useful compounds are transduced at (pre- or postsynaptic) D2 receptors. However, this conclusion must be tempered by evidence that actions at D1 and D2 receptors may not be entirely independent. The behavioral effects of abused psychomotor stimulants probably involve mechanisms other than "direct" agonist activity at either D1 or D2 receptors.
parlodel brand name
Glutamate transporters play an important role in keeping extracellular glutamate concentrations below the neurotoxic levels. We cloned a human glutamate transporter hGluT-1. In ischemic states, glutamate efflux via glutamate transporters and the extracellular glutamate concentrations are rapidly increased. These phenomenon enlarges the area of neuronal cell death. We showed that L-CCG-III, IV and glutamate block the reverse uptake (efflux) of glutamate in the hGluT-1 expressing HeLa cells. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a glutamate transporter GLT1 was decreased. Decrease of the glutamate transporter will cause the elevation of extracellular glutamate concentrations and will lead to the neuronal injury. Bromocriptine enhances glutamate uptake 1.5 times than in its absence in the hGluT-1 expressing HeLa cells. Enhancing the removal of extracellular glutamate may produce similar effect as those achieved by glutamate-receptor antagonists. At two neuronal death conditions, we showed new possibilities of preventing neuronal cell death by the glutamate transporter regulators.
We have studied the relationship between mean pretreatment levels of serum prolactin and the presence of positive immunohistochemical staining for prolactin in the pituitary tumours of 55 patients. Pretreatment serum prolactin was significantly higher in patients with tumours showing many prolactin immunostaining cells than in those with none (P less than 0.001). When the pretreatment serum prolactin exceeded 6000 mU/l, the tumours contained over 90% of prolactin positive cells; one patient was an exception who had received long-term high dose bromocriptine therapy, and her tumour showed only occasional cells with positive staining. When the pretreatment serum prolactin level was under 2500 mU/l, a tumour was found which showed either no cells or fewer than 1% of cells which stained for prolactin. There was no significant difference in pretreatment serum prolactin levels between 11 patients with craniopharyngiomas and 34 patients with pituitary macroadenomas showing no prolactin immunostaining. Seventy-one percent (32) of the 45 patients with craniopharyngiomas or tumours with negative immunostaining for prolactin, had raised pretreatment serum prolactin levels (above 360 mU/l) although this was usually only slightly elevated; the levels exceeded 2500 mU/l in six (13%) of them (two craniopharyngiomas, four pituitary tumours) but in none did the levels exceed 6000 mU/l. Four of the 55 pituitary tumours showed occasional cells (less than 1%) that stained positively for growth hormone. In none of the patients with these tumours was there evidence of acromegaly or pathologically elevated circulating growth hormone levels.
buy parlodel online
We postulate the following: (1) DA modifies NHE-3 phosphorylation by activating PKA through DA1 and by other kinases/phosphatases via DA2. (2) DA1 is sufficient to inhibit NHE-3, while DA2 is insufficient but plays a synergistic role by altering NHE-3 phosphorylation.
parlodel user reviews
Bromocriptine, a dopamine (DA) receptor agonist, has been reported to have hypotensive effects in anesthetized and conscious normotensive rats but its mechanism of action is still not fully understood. Therefore, we studied the changes in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) elicited by an intravenous (i.v.) administration of bromocriptine (150 micrograms/kg), in either pentobarbital-anesthetized or conscious normotensive rats, pretreated with either i.v. (0.3 mg/kg) or intrathecal (i.t.) (93 nmol) domperidone, a DA receptor antagonist that does not cross the blood-brain barrier. In these preparations, i.v. administration of bromocriptine elicited dose-dependent decreases in MAP and rises in HR. The hypotensive effect was antagonized partially by i.t. and fully by i.v. domperidone. However, the latter compound did not modify the tachycardia, which could be blocked by propranolol (0.5 mg/kg i.v.). In rats pretreated with the latter beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, bromocriptine produced only a decrease in blood pressure that was inhibited by i.v. and i.t. domperidone. These results suggest that, in anesthetized and conscious normotensive rats, the hypotension induced by systemic administration of bromocriptine is fully mediated by DA2 dopamine receptors, which are located partly within the spinal cord and partly in the peripheral circulation.
parlodel and alcohol
Dopaminergic receptors have been involved in the cardiovascular and renin-angiotensin systems (RAS). We have recently reported that bromocriptine is an effective antihypertensive drug by stimulating DA(2) dopaminergic receptors. However, the nature of the dopaminergic receptors in RAS has not been established. Ten outpatients with essential hypertension were treated at the Vargas Hospital with bromocriptine (BR) (11.25 mg day(minus sign1)), a DA(2) dopaminergic agonist, for a 2-week period, after which an oral dose of 30 mg day(minus sign1) of domperidone (DO), a peripheric DA(2) dopaminergic antagonist, was added for 2 additional weeks. The active period was preceeded by a 2-week placebo period. Bromocriptine decreased blood pressure (BP) significantly by 19/9 mm Hg (systolic/diastolic BP). Bromocriptine did not cause heart rate (HR) changes. Bromocriptine decreased plasma aldosterone (ALD) without altering plasma renin activity (PRA). Domperidone partially blocked bromocriptine-induced antihypertensive submaximal treadmill effects and reversed ALD decrease. Exercise response was not significantly altered by BR + DO. We conclude the following: (1) BR is an effective antihypertensive agent; (2) BR seems to be acting at both the central and peripheric nervous systems, and (3) the nature of the dopaminergic receptor involved in renin secretion does not seem to be DA(2).
The prevalence of gsp mutations in GH-secreting pituitary adenomas was thought to differ geographically or racially, given its exceptionally lower incidence among Japanese patients (4.4-9.3%) compared to other regions (30-50%). However, this notion is now being challenged after a recent paper reported a 53.3% incidence among Japanese with acromegaly. We have since re-evaluated the prevalence of gsp mutations on a larger scale.
Male and female rats were trained to discriminate between the stimulus properties of apomorphine (0.16 mg/kg i.p.) and saline in a two-lever, food-motivated operant procedure. Apomorphine, at doses different than the training dose, produced a similar dose-dependent relationship in both sexes. Consistent with the hypothesis that the behavioral effects of apomorphine are mediated by D2 activation, the apomorphine interoceptive cue generalized to bromocriptine, a drug considered to be a preferential D2 agonist. In addition, the dose-response curve after 5-15 mg/kg bromocriptine administration was parallel to that of apomorphine. Consistent with the biochemical evidence that apomorphine's effects are mediated, to a lesser extent, by D1 activation, the apomorphine cue partially generalized to the selective D1 agonist SKF 38393. Furthermore, the apomorphine cue was not blocked by the selective D1 antagonist SCH 23390. Somewhat surprising was the partial generalization of the apomorphine cue to SCH 23390. However, this is not the first time that the administration of SCH 23390 has resulted in unexpected behavioral responses. Other novel findings include the lack of sex differences in acquisition training to the apomorphine cue and in the generalization tests to the selective agonists. The behavioral results are consistent with previous biochemical evidence that the effects of apomorphine are mediated by both D1 and D2 activation and is further behavioral support that apomorphine's effects are not the result of D2 activation alone, as previously hypothesized.
Growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis is not only involved in the regulation of somatic growth but also has important physiological functions in adults. Several studies have shown that GH deficiency in adults is associated with abnormalities in body composition, metabolic derangements, and suboptimal physical performance. Furthermore, GH/IGF-I axis plays an important role in the maintenance of heart structure and function. Until recently, GH therapy was only used to treat short stature children, with or without established GH deficiency, and it remains common practice to discontinue GH replacement therapy when final height is achieved. Acromegaly, entity characterized by GH hypersecretion, is associated with an increased risk of premature death. Cardiac complications are known to be major determinants of the shortened life expectancy. Treatment of acromegaly accounts for a substantial decrease in morbidity and mortality. Surgery, radiation therapy and bromocriptine have only been able to reduce GH levels to normal levels in 10-30% of patients. The synthesis of somatostatin analogs has provided a new approach to acromegaly treatment. These drugs reduce GH and IGF-I levels in 80% of cases and normalize them in 40-60% of cases. Finally, GH/IGF-I system improves left ventricular systolic function and has also indirect effects on the cardiovascular system, mainly as a consequence of the peripheral vasodilatation. These effects are important in the understanding of the potential role of GH on improving ventricular systolic dysfunction and point to the use of GH as a potential therapy for chronic heart failure. The aim of the present review is to provide an update overview describing the role of GH on acromegaly, adult GH deficiency and heart failure, as well as the influence of GH-based therapy on heart structure and function.
parlodel 5 mg
Disability Rating Scale (DRS) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury and FIM instrument scores at 1 month and 12 months postinjury, Coma Recovery Scale, and Barry Rehabilitation Inpatient Screening of Cognition.