periactin 4 mg
A murine graft versus host (GVH) model was developed as a tool for drug discovery. A pharmacological survey revealed that as a class the anti-rheumatics (e.g., auranofin, azathioprine, and methotrexate) were the most potent inhibitors of GVH induced splenomegaly. The immunosuppressants, cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine A, and the glucocorticoids (e.g., dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, and corticosterone) were all able to suppress the GVH response. Anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., indomethacin and piroxicam), and a series of central nervous system affecting drugs, including serotonin agonists (e.g., trifluromethylphenylpiperazine (tfMPP), 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), and quipazine), and tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, desipramine, imipramine, and nortriptyline) typically were ineffective at doses up to 10 mg/kg. However, at high dose levels (30 mg/kg) piroxicam enhanced while amitriptyline and cyproheptadine (a mixed serotonin and histamine antagonist) suppressed GVH induced splenomegaly. These data provide a pharmacological profile for a series of immunomodulator, anti-inflammatory, and central nervous system active compounds in a classic immunologic model.
The mice were divided into 10 groups (n=7) with various treatments to assess central and peripheral antinociceptive activity of gabapentin. Hot plate, tail clip and tail flick tests were applied for the investigation of central antinociceptive activity and the writhing test was applied for the investigation of peripheral antinociceptive activity. In addition, we also evaluated the levels of PGE 2 and nNOS on perfused hippocampus slices of rats.
periactin 4mg dose
Desloratadine and montelukast each were associated with statistically significant reductions from baseline in the mean TASS averaged over the 4-week period (p < or =0.022 vs. placebo). Individual asthma symptom scores also improved significantly for both therapies (p < or = 0.05). Patients treated with desloratadine or montelukast demonstrated improvement from baseline in FEV(1) versus placebo; significant improvement was seen in a subset of patients with baseline FEV(1) <80% of predicted normal (both p < 0.05). Both active therapies significantly reduced beta(2)-agonist use (both p < 0.01). Improvements for both therapies were comparable for all efficacy parameters; they were tolerated well with adverse event profiles similar to placebo.
periactin overdose symptoms
In patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, cachexia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The pathogenic mechanism of this finding, usually referred to as "cancer anorexia and cachexia syndrome" (CACS), is complex and far from completely understood, but a disturbed equilibrium between possible food intake and metabolic needs seems to be fundamental. The literature data on the treatment options in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with cachexia are reviewed. Based on the clinical studies on cancer cachexia, some recommendations for the therapeutic approach of this disorder in patients with advanced NSCLC can be given. Metoclopramide is easily administered, can alleviate gastric disturbances, but probably does not correct the catabolic spiral of CACS. There are not enough data to advise the use of parenteral nutritional support, hydrazine, cyproheptadine, tetrahydrocannabinol or nandrolone decanoate. Corticosteroids are useful in additional analgesia and fast palliation of very weak and debilitated patients in the final episode of their disease. Recent data in non-small cell lung cancer patients are in favour of the use of high-dose progestagens to improve both appetite and weight.
periactin recommended dosage
Apomorphine and the putative dopamine agonist, 2-(N, N-dipropyl)-amino-5, 6-dihydroxytetralin induced dose-dependent climbing behaviour in the mouse which was measured in wire mesh lined cages as the percentage of time spent climbing in the 30 min period following the first climb and as the maximum time spent in a single climb throughout the drug effect. These These two measures were generally found to parallel excepting when the interacting agent caused muscular hypotonia. All potential interacting agents were given as pretreatments to determine changes in motor function which may interfere with the climbing induced by 1.0 mg/kg s.c. apomorphine. The possibility of a change in the apomorphine response to a sterotyped biting, which would also interfere with climbing, was also considered. Excluding these non-specific changes, climbing behaviour was shown to be antagonised, dose-dependently, by low doses of typical and atypical neuroleptic agents (haloperidol, fluphenazine, loxapine, pimozide, oxiperomide, clozapin, thioridazine, sulpiride, tiapride and metoclopramide) but not specifically by other psychoactive agents. Climbing behaviour was modified by serotonergic agents; the agonist quipazine reduced or abolished, whilst the antagonists, methysergide and cyproheptadine, enhanced the response. Picrotoxin specifically reduced climbing behaviour but sodium valproate exerted non-specific effects, precluding conclusions as to a GABA involvement. Cholinergic and noradrenergic involvements with climbing were also apparently eliminated by the ineffectiveness of atropine, aceperone, piperoxan and propranolol. The involvement of serotonin with climbing was extended to the actions of the neuroleptics: the antagonistic effects of typical neuroleptics (haloperidol, fluphenazine, loxapine) were markedly enhanced by combination with methysergide or cyproheptadine whilst the effects of clozapine, sulpiride and thioridazine were significantly reduced. The actions of metoclopramide, oxiperomide, pimozide and tiapride were not generally modified by such combinations. These differences are discussed in terms of differential abilities to induce extrapyramidal disturbances and the mouse climbing model is forwarded as a test with potential to detect antipsychotic agents of different activity spectra.
periactin vita tablets
Histamine is a major mediator of the allergic reaction, and histamine H1-receptor antagonists have a long history of clinical efficacy in a variety of allergic disorders. The pathogenesis of allergic disease is complex, involving not only histamine and mast cell-derived tryptase, but also eosinophil and neutrophil derived mediators, cytokines, and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1). A number of "in vitro" and "in vivo" studies have been performed to assess the clinical effectiveness of antihistamines in inhibiting the allergen-induced inflammatory process in the skin and mucosa. In vitro human studies have shown that high concentration of second generation antihistamines can block inflammatory mediator release from basophils and mast cells, and reduce ICAM-1 expression in epithelial cell lines. In vivo studies have also shown an effect on the allergen-induced inflammatory reaction; both oral and intranasal antihistamines cause a reduction in nasal symptoms and inflammatory cell influx. Analysis of secretory fluids and tissues after challenge indicates that antihistamines interfere with mediator release. Recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site of the allergic insult is also disturbed by antihistamines of second-generation, suggesting that these drugs may inhibit upregulation of molecules involved in cell adhesion and migration, and perhaps they may interfere with the cytokine cascade through their ability of stabilizing mast cells and of limiting the incursion of inflammatory cells. This article reviews available human data on the antiallergic effects of antihistamines.
periactin liquid dose
Eight-week open clinical trial. The 25 ambulatory patients retained existing treatment for asthma during the duration of the study. A two-week period of observation without the drug under investigation was followed by a six-week therapeutic phase, during which a single daily dose of 10 mg loratadine was taken. H1 antihistaminics, DNCG, ketotifene and systemic corticoids were not permitted. To monitor the therapeutic effect, the lung function parameters (VC, FEV1, peak flow, resistance) and the symptom score were established.
periactin syrup dosage
Fexofenadine produced significantly greater percentage suppression of the overall wheal response compared with placebo and loratadine (43.1% versus 10.0% and 15.2%, respectively; p < 0.001). Similarly, fexofenadine significantly suppressed the overall flare response compared with placebo and loratadine (43.0% versus 3.5% and -8.9%, respectively; p < 0.01). Loratadine was statistically no different from placebo in terms of both overall wheal and flare suppression. Area under the curve analysis for wheal and flare reduction (0-12 hours post-dose) confirmed these findings. For wheal inhibition, fexofenadine had a significantly faster onset of action (defined as time to > or = 35% inhibition) compared with placebo (p < 0.001) and loratadine (p < 0.01); for flare, fexofenadine had a significantly faster onset of action than loratadine (p < 0.01). Mean maximum inhibition (the mean of the greatest inhibition achieved from baseline for each treatment) for wheal was achieved significantly faster with fexofenadine than loratadine (p < 0.01), and fexofenadine had a significantly longer duration of effect on suppressing wheal and flare compared with placebo and loratadine (p < 0.05 for all). The antihistamine effects of fexofenadine correlated significantly with its Cmax, while loratadine activity did not correlate significantly with its plasma levels.
periactin 4mg tablets
Repeated bodily immobilization significantly reduced the food intake of ovariectomized rats. Additionally, immobilization and oestradiol benzoate were found to produce additive effects in depressing feeding. To determine whether serotonergic mechanisms are involved in the stress- and oestrogen-induced anorexia, the 5-HT antagonist cyproheptadine was given to ovariectomized rats that were immobilized and treated with oestradiol benzoate. Cyproheptadine had no effect on the anorexia produced by oestradiol. The food intake of immobilized rats treated with cyproheptadine was similar to control values, suggesting 5-HT involvement in the stress-induced anorexia. However, cyproheptadine had no ameliorating effects on the changes in body weight following immobilization treatment. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to a possible neuroendocrine basis for anorexia.