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The authors report 2 cases of thrombolytic therapy by Urokinase at the dose of 4 500 U/kg/hour, for 24 hours, in patients with thrombosis of a Bjork aortic and Lillehei mitral valve prostheses, and assess the efficacy with a review of the world literature. The first case was a 65 year old woman who received a Bjork No 25 aortic valve prosthesis for aortic regurgitation. Two years later oral anti-vitamin K anticoagulants were replaced by an association of Aspirin-Persantine. She developed acute pulmonary oedema secondary to thrombosis of her valve during the fifth postoperative year. Treatment with Urokinase was successful (4 500 U/kg/hour for 24 hours). The second cases was a 33 year old woman who received a Lillehei No 27 mitral valve prosthesis for mitral regurgitation due to infective endocarditis. Six years later, during a period of apparently ineffective oral anticoagulation, she developed subacute pulmonary oedema due to thrombosis of her prosthesis. Urokinase therapy was successful after 4 hours, but the valve surface area on cardiac catheterisation was decreased and elective reoperation to change the prosthesis was decided upon. Prosthetic valve thrombosis is a serious complication with an operative mortality of 68.6% (35 deaths out of 51 reoperations in the worl literature) whilst the efficacy of thrombolytic therapy would appear to be about 80%. When thrombosis is progressive, the valve has to be changed surgically, but when it is secondary, thrombolytic therapy at least helps the patient survive the acute phase.
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Notwithstanding the large number of clinical trials, most of them designed and performed according to the requirements of modern clinical pharmacology, only a few firm clinical recommendations on drugs affecting platelet function in the prevention of arterial or venous thrombosis can be made at present. There is no good evidence for the clinical effectiveness of aspirin or any other drug affecting platelet function in patients with peripheral arterial occlusion or after vascular grafting. In cerebrovascular disease there is reasonable evidence that the administration of sulfinpyrazone can significantly reduce cerebral ischemia or mortality, but similar trials performed with aspirin, dipyridamole or clofibrate failed to reveal a significant difference in favor of the experimental treatment. Patients with angina only were shown to benefit from treatment with clofibrate, but prospective trials with dipyridamole or aspirin in the primary or secondary prevention of myocardial infarction did not reveal a significant reduction in morbidity or mortality in the experimental group. Use of a combination of the latter two drugs did, however, reveal a reduction in morbidity and mortality. In patients with prosthetic heart valves, there is firm evidence that dipyridamole and sulfinpyrazone therapy can normalize decreased platelet survival, an effect which has been shown to correlate well with the incidence of thromboembolism. Provided further trials lead to confirmatory conclusions, drugs inhibiting platelet function associated or not with oral anticoagulants may constitute an ideal prophylaxis in patients with a substitute valve. There is still much uncertainty as to whether dipyridamole, given in addition to conventional treatment, benefits patients with membranous or mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis. The same holds for drugs inhibiting platelet function after kidney or heart transplantation in man. Only scanty reports are available on the usefulness of drugs affecting platelet function in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and the hemolytic uremic syndrome. Three different types of antiplatelet drugs are available for the prevention of postoperative deep vein thrombosis: dextran, oral drugs also affecting platelet function and heparin administered subcutaneously in small doses. In orthopedic surgery dextran 70 administered before and every second day after surgery was the drug showing the most convincing reduction in the incidence of phlebographically proved deep vein thrombosis. Major orthopedic surgery is precisely the type of surgery in which the effectiveness of small dose heparin is much in doubt and in which the effectiveness of aspirin and dipyridamole is still to be confirmed. In general surgery, use of a combination of 1 g aspirin and 0.225 g dipyridamole daily was shown to offer approximately the same level of protection as small doses of heparin, land these two forms of prevention seem to offer a greater degree of protection than dextran...
The exogenous adenosine is able to provoke a coronary vasodilation, which is the same as the one provoked by the papaverine and greater than the one provoked by the dipyridamole. We report our experience in using exogenous adenosine in association with technetium-99m-sestamibi tomoscintigraphy for a diagnostic test on the coronary artery disease (CAD).
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Nine studies, including six studies in schizophrenia (total n=457) and three studies in BD (total n=289) were included. Overall, adenosine modulators were superior to placebo in PANSS total scores (SMD=-1.07, p=0.01) and positive and general but not negative symptom subscale scores in schizophrenia. Individually, allopurinol failed to show its superiority to placebo in all primary outcome measures in schizophrenia. In BD, data from pooled adenosine modulators indicated significant reduction of YMRS scores in comparison to placebo (SMD=-0.39, p=0.004).
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This study sought to identify existing prediction models for intracranial hemorrhage or major bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy and evaluate their performance in patients with cerebral ischemia.
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Twenty-five patients with FH (14 men, 11 women) without a history of myocardial ischemia and 14 control subjects (9 men, 5 women) were studied. Total serum cholesterol (mmole/liter) was 5.33 +/- 0.66 in control subjects and 7.90 +/- 0.77 in FH patients (p < 0.01 versus control subjects).
We searched electronic databases, corresponded with researchers and handsearched the archives of the MRC's Common Cold Unit (CCU).
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Coronary flow reserve calculation by transesophageal coronary sinus flow velocity recordings is feasible in a large proportion of patients and might be useful for the noninvasive evaluation of patients with syndrome X and patients with severe left coronary artery disease.
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One hundred and one subjects were randomised to receive either aspirin 100 mg or aspirin 100 mg + dipyridamole 300 mg daily before undergoing coronary bypass surgery. The drugs were commenced at least 36 hours before operation and patients were followed for one year. There were three perioperative deaths and 37 withdrawals, of which 14 were drug related (aspirin four, aspirin + dipyridamole ten). Cineangiocardiograms at nine weeks and one year showed vein graft patency rates of 93% and 87% for subjects treated with aspirin alone; and 90% and 89% in those who received aspirin+dipyridamole. During the follow-up period 14% of 232 coronary lesions in the aspirin treated group advanced by more than two grades compared with 15% of 315 lesions in the aspirin+dipyridamole group. The study did not establish superiority of one regimen over another in terms of graft patency or progress of lesions in native vessels. However, low dose aspirin was better tolerated than combination therapy.
Septal or anteroseptal defects on exercise myocardial perfusion scintigraphy are common in patients with LBBB and normal coronary arteries.
Strain rate imaging, transthoracic CFR, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation are valuable noninvasive and easily repeatable tools for detecting LV myocardial and vascular involvement caused by SSc. Their combined use may be therefore useful for early identifying patients with more diffused and severe form of SSc, ideally in asymptomatic cases prior to the development of severe vasculopathy, when it may be most feasible to modify the disease process by new potential therapies.