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Day-case laparoscopic subtotal hysterectomy may be considered as a potential treatment option in symptomatic women with major congenital uterine anomaly, in whom fertility potential is no longer an issue. Accurate pre-operative assessment of the upper urinary tract is considered essential.
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A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of ketoprofen and mefenamic acid in tablets has been developed. HPLC with UV detection (220 nm) was performed on an analytical column packed with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as the stationary phase. The MIPs are prepared by bulk polymerisation followed by crushing and sieving to the desired particle size. In this paper, we selected ketoprofen, methacrylic acid, and ethylene glycoldimethacrylate as template, functional monomer, and crosslinker in the presence of chloroform as the solvent. The retention times of mefenamic acid and ketoprofen were approximately 5 and 20 min, respectively. In order to compare the chromatographic data from the stationary phase, separation factors (alpha) were given. The values of alpha were 4.36 approximately 4.39 and showed that the MIPs were able to recognize structurally subtle differences from the template molecule. The limits of detection for ketoprofen and mefenamic acid were found to be 0.029 and 0.038 (g/L), while the limits of quantitation were 0.097 and 0.127 (g/L), respectively. Our results showed good accuracy, indicating that a ketoprofen-selective polymer was suitable for ketoprofen and mefenamic acid separations. Therefore, the MIPs are certainly applied to commercial tablet analysis.
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A restricted access media-molecularly imprinted polymer (RAM-MIP) for flufenamic acid has been developed for the simultaneous determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in river water samples. The RAM-MIP was prepared using 4-vinylpyridine and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively, by a multi-step swelling and polymerization method followed by a surface modification technique. The RAM-MIP for flufenamic acid showed excellent molecular recognition abilities for flufenamic acid and mefenamic acid, and moderate molecular recognition abilities for indomethacin, etodolac and ketoprofen. The simultaneous determination of NSAIDs (mefenamic acid, indomethacin, etodolac and ketoprofen) in river water samples was carried out by LC-MS/MS using the RAM-MIP for flufenamic acid as a pretreatment column. The concentrations of mefenamic acid, indomethacin and etodolac in river water samples were determined to be 0.4, 0.7 and 0.3ng/L, respectively, while ketoprofen was below the limit of quantitation.
To investigate the possible role of endothelial mediators on the increased vasoconstriction to 5-HT1 receptor stimulation by the host-modified arterioles feeding a Meth-A tumour implanted in the flank of female Balb/c mice.
A randomized, single-blind, standard controlled trial compared efficacy of R. emodi against mefenamic acid on diagnosed subjects of primary dysmenorrhoea for three consecutive cycles. Experimental group (n=30) received capsules of R. emodi powder two times a day, two days before the expected date of menstruation, and continued first three days of menstruation, while control group (n=15) participants received mefenamic acid capsules three times a day on the same protocol. The primary outcome measures were reduced in severity and duration of pain, assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) and verbal multidimensional scoring system (VMSS), and secondary outcome measures were overall improvement of dysmenorrhoea and improved in quality of life (QOL). Statistical analysis was done by repeated measures analysis of variance and Chi-square/Fisher Exact test.
Phase III, Single centre, open, randomised, comparative, parallel group study.
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A rapid, specific and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of fenofibric acid in human plasma. The method involves simple, one-step liquid-liquid extraction procedure coupled with an Acquity UPLC(TM) BEH C(18) column (50 x 2.1 mm, i.d., 1.7 microm) with isocratic elution at a flow-rate of 0.2 mL/min and mefenamic acid was used as the internal standard. The Quattro Premier XE mass spectrometry was operated under the multiple reaction-monitoring mode using the electrospray ionization technique. Using 250 microL plasma, the methods were validated over the concentration rang 0.05-7.129 microg/mL, with a lower limit of quantification of 0.05 microg/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within 9.3%. The recovery was 66.7% and 52.6% for fenofibric acid, and mefenamic acid, respectively. Total run time was 1.8 min only for each sample, which makes it possible to analyze more than 350 samples per day.
Peribulbar anaesthesia is effective in reducing pain and blood pressure increase after PRP treatment. Oral diazepam, mefenamic acid, and acetaminophen (either alone or in combination with each other) are not effective in preventing PRP treatment-associated pain. Intramuscular injection of ketorolac tromethamine is also not effective in reducing PRP-associated pain.
Prostanoid-independent anti-rheumatic effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a matter of debate. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of chemically different NSAIDs (diclofenac, indomethacin, ketoprofen, paracetamol, piroxicam and four fenamates: flufenamic, meclofenamic, mefenamic and tolfenamic acids) on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) functions, i.e. calcium ionophore A23187-triggered degranulation, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) release, platelet-activating factor (PAF) production and migration towards LTB4. The four fenamates caused a dose-dependent inhibition of each of the PMN functions tested. Flufenamic, meclofenamic and tolfenamic acids were about equipotent to inhibit PMN degranulation (IC50S 21-32 microM) and LTB4 release (IC50s 21-25 microM) whereas mefenamic acid achieved similar effects at somewhat higher drug concentrations. Tolfenamic and meclofenamic acids were the most potent fenamates to inhibit PAF synthesis (IC50s 37 and 51 microM) as well as migration towards LTB4 (IC50s 61 and 92 microM). Out of the other NSAIDs, diclofenac (which is chemically related to fenamates) suppressed degranulation as well as LTB4 and PAF production. Indomethacin inhibited LTB4 and PAF synthesis whereas ketoprofen reduced degranulation. The inhibitory effects of the non-fenamate NSAIDs occurred only at drug concentrations far higher than those achieved clinically. Paracetamol and piroxicam (up to 300 microM) did not influence the PMN functions tested. We conclude that NSAIDs with a fenamate structure differ from other NSAIDs by inhibiting PMN functions induced either by receptor-mediated stimulus (LTB4) or calcium ionophore (A23187) at micromolar drug concentrations.
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Recently, it has been reported that inflammatory processes are associated with the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease and that treatment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduce the risk for Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we examined nitric oxide radical quenching activity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroidal drugs using our established direct in vitro nitric oxide radical detecting system by electron spin resonance spectrometry. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin, mefenamic acid, indomethacin and ketoprofen directly and dose-dependently scavenged generated nitric oxide radicals. In experiments of nitric oxide radical donor, NOC18-induced neuronal damage, these four non-steroidal drugs significantly prevented the NOC18-induced reduction of cell viability and apoptotic nuclear changes in neuronal cells without affecting the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase-like immunoreactivity. However, ibuprofen, naproxen or steroidal drugs, which had less or no scavenging effects in vitro, showed almost no protective effects against NOC18-induced cell toxicity. These results suggest that the protective effects of the former four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs against apoptosis might be mainly due to their direct nitric oxide radical scavenging activities in neuronal cells. These direct NO. quenching activities represent novel effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Our findings identified novel pharmacological mechanisms of these drugs to exert not only their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic activities but also neuroprotective activities against neurodegeneration.
Seizures during intoxications with pharmaceuticals are a well-known complication. However, only a few studies report on drugs commonly involved and calculate the seizure potential of these drugs.
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We examined whether a pre-emptive analgesic effect could be achieved with ropivacaine, which has less cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity than bupivacaine, in adults undergoing tonsillectomy.