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Patients received either AA with electrical stimulation (AE, n = 76) or without (AA, n = 37) electrical stimulation at an alternating frequency of 2/100 Hz or a sham AE with metal plates instead of needles and no electrical stimulation, no-needle (NN, n = 36) at the AA points 1 (tooth), 55 (Shen men) and 84 (mouth) during the entire study period. Regularly rated pain intensity (five-point verbal rating scale), consumption of acetaminophen 500 mg tablets and additional rescue medication with mefenamic acid 500 mg were assessed.
We found that zooxanthellatoxin-B from a symbiotic marine alga, Symbiodinium sp., caused a concentration-dependent contraction of the rabbit isolated aorta at concentrations of 10(-7)-10(-5) M. Verapamil (10(-6) M) and mefenamic acid (10(-5) M) significantly attenuated the contractile response to zooxanthellatoxin-B at lower concentrations (10(-7)-10(-6) M) but not at higher concentrations (3 X 10(-6)-10(-5) M). The response to zooxanthellatoxin-B was partly inhibited by phentolamine (10(-6) M), whereas it was potentiated by ouabain (10(-5) M). Tetrodotoxin (10(-6) M), methysergide (10(-6) M), chlorpheniramine (10(-6) M) or indomethacin (3 X 10(-6) M), however, did not affect it. The zooxanthellatoxin-B-induced contraction was abolished by incubation in Ca2+-free solution. The contractile response increased in a concentration-dependent fashion with Ca2+ (0.03 and 10 mM) or Sr2 + (0.10 and 10 mM). After treatment with verapamil (10(-6) or 5 X 10(-6) M), the concentration-contractile response curves for Ca2+ and Sr2+ in the presence of zooxanthellatoxin-B were shifted to the right in parallel. MgCl2 (10 mM) shifted the concentration-response curve for Ca2+ more markedly than did verapamil. Zooxanthellatoxin-B increased tissue Na+ and reduced tissue K+ contents in the aorta, suggesting that zooxanthellatoxin-B increases Na+ and K+ permeability across the plasma membrane. These results suggest that the zooxanthellatoxin-B-induced contraction of the aorta is caused mainly by a direct action on smooth muscle, i.e., an increase in Ca2+ permeability that occurs at least partly through voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels as well as through nonselective cation channels in the cell membrane of smooth muscle.
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The primary outcome was the patient-reported score on the Menorrhagia Multi-Attribute Scale (MMAS) assessed over a 2-year period and then again at 5 years. Secondary outcomes included general quality of life (QoL), sexual activity, surgical intervention and safety. Data were analysed using iterative constant comparison. A state transition model-based cost-utility analysis was undertaken alongside the randomised trial. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were derived from the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) and the Short Form questionnaire-6 Dimensions (SF-6D). The intention-to-treat analyses were reported as cost per QALY gained. Uncertainty was explored by conducting both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.
Pharmaceuticals are a class of chemicals whose fate in the environment has received increasing attention in the past few years. A quantitative method was developed for the determination of acidic pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, and diclofenac), caffeine and the antibacterial triclosan in wastewater effluent. The compounds were extracted from wastewater samples on Waters Oasis HLB solid-phase extraction columns, derivatized with N,O-bis [Trimethylsilyl] trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Estimated method detection limits ranged from 6 to 45 ng/L based on replicate analyses (n = 10). This method was applied to the analysis of effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and compounds were detected at concentrations of 18-72 ng/L.
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We have described the case of a 58-year-old woman in whom acute hemolytic anemia, renal failure, and granulocytopenia developed after intake of mefenamic acid and diclofenac. Results of direct and indirect Coombs' tests were negative, but the lymphocyte transformation test was positive for these two nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We suggest that the immune complex mechanism could have induced these adverse reactions. Although these drugs are very popular, simultaneous administration should be avoided because serious adverse effects can potentially occur.
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Preemptive analgesia with lidocaine infiltration at the incision is a simple and efficient mode with few side-effects that may reduce pain and opioid requirements in women undergoing CS.
100 practices (348 doctors) in primary care were recruited and randomised to intervention (54) and control (46).
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The aims of this investigation were to study the glucuronidation of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in human liver and kidney and to search for a compound that inhibits MPA glucuronidation among the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).