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The worldwide explosive increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus and its cardiovascular morbidity are becoming major health concerns.
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Acarbose, which is clinically widely used to treat Type 2 Diabetes, is thought to act at the small intestine by competitively inhibiting enzymes that delay the release of glucose from complex carbohydrates, thereby specifically reducing post prandial glucose excursion. The major side-effect of treatment with acarbose, flatulence, occurs when undigested carbohydrates are fermented by colonic bacteria, resulting in considerable amount of hydrogen. We propose that enteric benefits of acarbose is partly attributable to be their ability to neutralise oxidative stress via increased production of H2 in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, symptoms of ulcerative colitis in human beings can be ameliorated by acarbose.
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Green tea, green tea polyphenols and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) are confirmed to have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and a possible mechanism can be ascribed to their inhibitory effect against α-amylase and α-glucosidase in the digestive tract. In this paper, we first investigated the combined inhibitory effect of green tea extracts, green tea polyphenols or EGCG with acarbose on α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Our results indicated that the interaction between green tea extracts (green tea polyphenols or EGCG) and acarbose was complicated. The combination of green tea extracts, green tea polyphenols or EGCG with acarbose had a synergistic effect on α-amylase and α-glucosidase at low concentrations and the combined effect turned out to be antagonistic at high concentrations according to the Combination Index (CI) values. These findings not only provided some significant quantitative values, but also provide some valuable implications for the combined use of acarbose and GTE (GTP or EGCG) in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Vildagliptin is effective and well tolerated in patients with Type 2 diabetes, demonstrating similar glycaemic reductions to acarbose, but with better tolerability.
This study provides evidence that acarbose is similar to metformin in efficacy, and is therefore a viable choice for initial therapy in Chinese patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
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Acarbose treatment was associated with improvements in discounted life expectancy (0.21 years) and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) (0.19 QALYs) but was on average marginally more expensive than treatment in the placebo arm (euro135 per patient). This led to incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of euro633 per life year and euro692 per quality-adjusted life year gained. Sensitivity analysis showed that these findings were robust under variation in a range of assumptions.
Over the past years, there has been an explosive increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and this is expected to continue, entailing associated morbidity and mortality. An increasing number of studies explore the different ways T2DM could be prevented. On-going lifestyle modifications need to be addressed. High-risk patients should be given counselling on weight loss, possibly using a low glycaemic index diet, with a target of around 7-10% over 6-12 months, as well as instruction for increasing physical activity to around 150 min of physical exercise weekly (NNT = 4-8). Moderate alcohol consumption and coffee consumption may also be of benefit (NNT = 89 and 66, respectively). Metformin (NNT = 14), acarbose (NNT = 11) and troglitazone (NNT = 6) have been shown to prevent/delay T2DM and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and statins appear to have an adjunctive role (NNT = 42 and 112, respectively). Trials with orlistat and bariatric surgery have also prevented T2DM (NNT = 36 and 6, respectively), and forthcoming treatment with GLP1 mimetics appears promising. Diabetes prevention studies should help create well-defined strategies for screening and treating high-risk populations in the real world, as prevention is our only chance to alleviate the ever growing burden of diabetes mellitus in the world.
Seven patients did not complete the study, comprising one patient who was lost to follow-up and a further six through side-effects (two in week 1, one in week 15 and three after cross-over) Side-effects were classified as nausea (one in acarbose group), gastrointestinal events (four in acarbose group), and hypoglycaemia (one in repaglinide group). After 15 weeks of therapy, the repaglinide-treated patients experienced a significant decrease in HbA(1c) (-1.1%, p < 0.05), FPG (-9.5%, p < 0.05), and PPG (-14.9%, p < 0.05), when compared to the baseline values. However, the same treatment was associated with a significant increase in body weight (+2.3%, p < 0.05), BMI (+3.3%, p < 0.05) and FPI (+22.5%, p < 0.05); The increase was reversed during the cross-over phase. After 15 weeks of therapy, the acarbose-treated patients experienced a significant decrease in body weight (-1.9%, p < 0.05), BMI (-4.1%, p < 0.05), HbA(1c) (-1.4%, p < 0.05), FPG (-10.7%, p < 0.05), PPG (-16.2%, p < 0.05), FPI (-16.1%, p < 0.05), PPI (-26.9%, p < 0.05), HOMA index (-30.1%, p < 0.05), when compared to the baseline values. All these changes were reversed during the cross-over study phase, except those relating to HbA(1c), FPG and PPG. The only changes that significantly differed when directly comparing acarbose- and repaglinide-treated patients were those relating to FPI (-16.1% vs. +22.5%, respectively, p < 0.05) and HOMA index (-30.1% vs. +2.7%, p < 0.05).
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In 1997, the American Diabetes Association recommended a normal fasting blood glucose of < 126 mg/dL as the criteria for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Since then, new data have suggested that post-prandial glucose may have a stronger correlation with cardiovascular disease than fasting blood glucose. Two trials, the DCCT and UKPDS, provided evidence of the relationship between hyperglycemia and long-term diabetic complications. Preventing short-term complications, such as cognitive decline, is a more immediate goal and less well-studied. Type 2 diabetes is understood to result most often from insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. New classes of drugs offer expanded therapeutic options for managing this dual metabolic defect. These drugs have invalidated the former therapeutic paradigm of diet, sulfonylureas, and then insulin therapy.
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To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment with acarbose in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in comparison with conventional treatment (based on medical counseling on diet and health and without drug treatment) from the perspective of the public payer.
The present study was conducted in order to examine the effect of acarbose, a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, on renal function in rats with mild streptozotocin-diabetes. Male Wistar rats were made mildly diabetic by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) and were supplied a standard solid chow containing 0.1% acarbose for 8 weeks. Diabetic rats showed mild hyperglycemia under non-fasting condition and their urine albumin excretion (UAE) rate was markedly increased compared to non-diabetic control rats, while acarbose treatment resulted in a significant suppression of blood glucose level and UAE in diabetic rats. Examination by electron microscope revealed that the number of anionic sites in the lamina rara externa per 1000 nm of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was significantly decreased in diabetic rats compared to control value (15.7 +/- 0.9 vs. 20.9 +/- 0.3 P < 0.001), whereas, significant recovery (19.6 +/- 0.6 P < 0.01) was observed after 8 weeks of acarbose treatment. In conclusion, acarbose treatment suppressed blood glucose level of mildly-insulin deficient animal model without insulin treatment and prevented from a reduction in the number of anionic sites in GBM which might ameliorate an increased permeability of GBM leading to albuminuria.
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Using a Monte Carlo simulation, the mean 3-year cumulative costs per patient were $4971, $5273, and $5311 for glipizide GITS, metformin, and acarbose first-line strategies, respectively. The main cost drivers were drug prices. Mean 3-year cost savings for first-line glipizide GITS were $301 over metformin and $340 over acarbose. Between 83% and 85% of all simulations showed cost savings with glipizide GITS compared with the other agents.