We described a 33-year-old man with gross hematuria and acute renal failure, who had suffered from fever for 6 months, multiple cervical lymph node swelling, splenomegaly, left-sided pleural effusion. He also suffered from anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, and his serum interleukin-6 levels were markedly elevated. Antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies were positive in the patient's serum. Lymph node biopsy results were compatible with Castleman disease of "plasma cell" variant. Renal biopsy revealed cellular crescents in most of the glomeruli. Immunofluorescence studies showed strong deposition of IgG in a linear pattern along the glomerular basement membrane. Pathologic features were compatible with crescentic glomerulonephritis because of antiglomerular basement membrane disease. With intensive plasmapheresis and monthly chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, oncovin, prednisone regimen), the patient experienced clinical and biochemical remission. Although autoimmune phenomenon had been described frequently in Castleman disease, to the best of our knowledge, this was the first report that the patient with rapid progressive glomerulonephritis mediated by antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies, which might be associated with Castleman disease.
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We evaluated 111 premenopausal women with SLE and 40 healthy controls without clinical cardiovascular disease. B-mode ultrasound was used to measure carotid plaque and intima-media wall thickness (IMT). The frequency of risk factors for atherosclerosis in patients and controls was compared, and the relationship between the patients' clinical characteristics and carotid plaque was examined. At the same time, we used B-mode ultrasound to measure flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD) in the brachial artery to assess for difference in endothelial function between SLE patients and controls.
The second boy was delivered at 33 weeks' gestational age by caesarean section. He was discharged without intracranial haemorrhage or thrombocytopenia. The anti-group A antibody titre in the maternal serum was 2048-4096 (normal range: 4-64). The anti-group A antibody titre in the newborn's serum was 4. Cross-matching between the maternal serum and the paternal platelets was positive.
Patients (N = 502) were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to 24 weeks (eight 21-day cycles) of induction with bortezomib-dexamethasone (VD; n = 168; intravenous bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2), days 1, 4, 8, and 11 plus oral dexamethasone 20 mg, days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12 [cycles 1 to 4], or 1, 2, 4, and 5 [cycles 5 to 8]), bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone (VTD; n = 167; bortezomib and dexamethasone as before plus oral thalidomide 100 mg, days 1 to 21), or bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone (VMP; n = 167; bortezomib as before plus oral melphalan 9 mg/m(2) and oral prednisone 60 mg/m(2), days 1 to 4, every other cycle), followed by 25 weeks (five 35-day cycles) of bortezomib maintenance (1.6 mg/m(2), days 1, 8, 15, and 22). The primary end point was progression-free survival.
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction, commonly affecting the ocular muscles. Cigarette smoking has been shown to influence many autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, but its effect on myasthenia gravis has not been well studied. We sought to determine whether cigarette smoking influenced disease-related symptoms in ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG).
APN showed potent anti-inflammatory effect on pathogen-induced PID in rats, with a potential mechanism of inhibiting the NF-κB signal pathway.
Immunobullous dermatoses are usually treated with immunosuppressive agents, which make patients susceptible to pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and clinical characteristics of PCP in patients with immunobullous diseases.
The estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) rate for patients with or without salvage treatment was 37.8% vs. 0 (p < 0.0001), respectively. Salvage CT did not improve survival of relapsed Stage IE and IIE patients. Among relapsed Stage IIIE and IVE patients who received salvage treatment, RT developed significantly better survival when compared with that of non-RT (1-year OS, 62.5% vs. 0, p = 0.006). Relapsed Ann Arbor stage and receiving salvage treatment were found to be significant factors influencing OS at both univariate and multivariate levels.
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Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease that commonly affects individuals over 50 years of age, characterised by pain and morning stiffness of the shoulder and pelvic girdle. PMR can present as 'isolated' form or may be associated with giant cell arteritis. The progress of imaging techniques has helped in understanding different clinical patterns: subclinical vasculitis can occur in at least one-third of PMR patients, causing ischaemic complications. It is considered a polygenic disease and environmental factors may play a role in its pathogenesis, such as viral or bacterial triggers, both in the 'wide' form or assembled with adjuvants in vaccines. The response to steroid therapy is generally dramatic and side effects may occur, as well as the development of glucocorticoid resistance. The optimisation of therapy may require steroid-sparing agents as well as modified-release prednisone as 'nighttime' replacement therapy.
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Based on the excellent outcome of the LDPs at this institution, LDPs is therefore expected to become a promising option for the treatment of patients with severe diabetes.
Two patients with HTLV-1-associated ATL developed symptomatic scleritis. In the first case, conjunctival biopsy showed leukemic infiltration that was confirmed by T-cell receptor polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrating a clonal rearrangement. As treatment for ATL, both cases received interleukin-2 receptor targeted therapy. In one patient, daclizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha chain of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor, was used. The second patient was treated with denileukin diftitox, an immunotoxin fusion protein that targets the IL-2 receptor. Improvement in scleritis was noted in both patients.
The outlook for transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma patients has improved enormously over recent years with the incorporation of new agents into standard regimens. Novel regimens combine melphalan and prednisone (MP) with bortezomib (VMP), with thalidomide (MPT), and with lenalidomide with (MPR-R) and without (MPR) lenalidomide maintenance. The efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of these regimens have not yet been compared; therefore, we conducted a pharmacoeconomic analysis using data from randomized controlled trials versus MP. Using a Markov model developed from a U.S. payer's perspective, we compared VMP with MPT and MPR-R over a lifetime horizon. MPT and MPR-R were chosen because, like VMP, they are superior to MP in response and outcomes. Data from the Velcade as Initial Standard Therapy in Multiple Myeloma (VISTA; VMP), Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome (IFM) 99-06 (MPT), and MM-015 (MPR-R) trials were used. The IFM 99-06 study was selected because of the superior activity in this study compared with other MPT studies. Using patient-level (VMP) and published (MPT, MPR-R) data, we estimated the health-state transition and adverse event probabilities for each regimen, related costs, and state-specific utility estimates. Costs (in 2010 U.S. dollars) and health outcomes were discounted at 3%. Discounted lifetime direct medical costs were lowest with VMP at $119,102. MPT cost $142,452 whereas MPR-R cost $248,358. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio calculations projected that VMP would confer cost savings and better health outcomes relative to MPT and MPR-R. We conclude that VMP is highly likely to be cost-effective compared with MP, MPT, and MPR-R.