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On average finasteride halved prostate specific antigen. As shown by the Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms study and Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, it also decreased the annual median increase in prostate specific antigen from benign prostatic hyperplasia. Therefore, despite doubling prostate specific antigen during the first 3 years of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, to have prostate specific antigen exceed 4 ng/ml and have a prostate biopsy recommended men receiving finasteride vs placebo required greater increases in prostate specific antigen, which was shown in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial to be associated with high grade disease (p < 0.001). Also, the decrease of the contribution to prostate specific antigen from benign prostatic hyperplasia by finasteride improved the performance characteristics of prostate specific antigen to detect Gleason score 7 or higher prostate cancer.
Men scheduled for TURP were randomized into group 1 (control n = 25, no medication), group 2 and 3 (n = 20 in each, 5 mg Finasteride daily for 2 and 4 weeks before TURP; respectively). Hematocrit level in the irrigation fluid, weight of the resected prostate chips, decreases in blood hemoglobin (Hb) level 6 and 24 hours after the operation together with volume and length density of prostate vessels using stereological methods were compared.
Oral finasteride, 5 mg/day, may be an effective and safe treatment for normoandrogenic women with FPHL.
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To review the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic approach, and management of hirsutism.
Androgenetic alopecia is a highly prevalent condition that can profoundly impair the quality of life in both men and women.
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To date, the Prostate Cancer Prevention trial (PCPT) is the only reported phase III randomized clinical trial to evaluate the role of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. The original PCPT data revealed that finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by approximately 25% in comparison with placebo. However, patients who received finasteride had a greater incidence of high-grade tumors, which prohibited acceptance of finasteride as a chemopreventive agent by most urologists. Recent updates of the PCPT findings confirmed that finasteride reduces the risk of clinically significant prostate cancer, including high-grade tumors, primarily due to its effects on improving the performance characteristics of prostate-specific antigen and prostate biopsy. There was no increase in high-grade prostate cancer. Rather, there was improved detection of high-grade prostate cancer due to decreased prostate volume.
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The score on each of the 5 domains of the IIEF-5 did not show any significant change after 4 to 6 months of treatment.
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Androgenetic alopecia In men, or male pattern baldness, is recognized increasingly as a physically and psychologically harmful medical condition that can be managed effectively by generalist clinicians. This article discusses the clinical manifestations, epidemiology, physical and psychosocial importance, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of androgenetic alopecia in men. Androgenetic alopecia affects at least half of white men by the age of 50 years. Although androgenetic alopecia does not appear to cause direct physical harm, hair loss can result in physical harm because hair protects against sunburn, cold, mechanical injury, and ultraviolet light. Hair loss also can psychologically affect the balding individual and can Influence others' perceptions of him. A progressive condition, male pattern baldness is known to depend on the presence of the androgen dihydrotestosterone and on a genetic predisposition for this condition, but its pathophysiology has not been elucidated fully. Pharmacotherapy, hair transplantation, and cosmetic aids have been used to manage male pattern baldness. Two US Food and Drug Administration-approved hair-loss pharmacotherapies-the potassium channel opener minoxidil and the dihydrotestosterone synthesis inhibitor finasteride--are safe and effective for controlling male pattern baldness with long-term daily use. Regardless of which treatment modality is chosen for male pattern baldness, defining and addressing the patient's expectations regarding therapy are paramount in determining outcome.
We report two cases of stroke associated with the use of finasteride at 1 mg/day, which is approved in Japan for the treatment of male-pattern hair loss. The first case involved a 35-year-old male taking 1 mg of finasteride daily for 6 months to prevent male-pattern hair loss. He was taken to a hospital and later admitted to our hospital owing to headache and seizures. Brain computed tomography (CT) images showed a low-density area in the right frontal lobe. CT venography (CTV) revealed sinus thrombosis and he was treated with an anticoagulant. As the headache gradually subsided, medications were tapered and terminated 10 months later when venous flow to the sagittal sinus and left transverse sinus was confirmed to be recanalized. The second case involved a 41-year-old male taking 1 mg of finasteride and 6 mg of minoxidil daily for 1 year for male-pattern hair loss. He started having headaches and was admitted to our hospital when diffusion-weighted images of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a high-intensity area in the left parietotemporal lobe. He was treated with antiplatelet and anticoagulation medicines. The Japan Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) has reported 14 cases of thrombosis in patients taking finasteride in Japan; 4 cases of stroke (our 2 cases and 2 reported by PMDA), 6 cases of myocardial infarction, and 4 cases of other thrombotic diseases. Increases in estrone and estradiol levels in prostate cancer patients and controls receiving 5 mg of finasteride have been reported. Gynecomastia has also been reported as one of the adverse effects of finasteride at 1 mg or 5 mg daily. Taken together, we assume that the increases in estrone and estradiol levels induced by finasteride lead to thrombosis development.
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Symptomatic finasteride users were similar in body composition, strength, and nucleotide sequences of AR, SRD5A1, and SRD5A2 genes to asymptomatic finasteride users and nonusers. Symptomatic finasteride users had impaired sexual function, higher depression scores, a more negative affectivity balance, and more cognitive complaints than men in groups 2 and 3 but had normal objectively assessed cognitive function. Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol-glucuronide, testosterone to dihydrotestosterone and androsterone glucuronide to etiocholanolone glucuronide ratios, and markers of peripheral androgen action and expression levels of AR-dependent genes in skin did not differ among groups. fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses to erotic and nonerotic stimuli revealed abnormal function in brain circuitry linked to sexual arousal and major depression.